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Phosphorus (Phosphate)

What is phosphorus and what does it do?

Phosphorus is an essential mineral, which contributes to the bone strength and production of energy from food, it activates various enzymes, vitamins and hormones and helps to maintain acid-base balance.

Phosphorus vs Phosphate

Phosphorus (P) in foods and in the human body does not appear as a free element but rather as a phosphorus-oxygen compound phosphate (PO4). In the nutritional context, the terms phosphorus and phosphate are used interchangeably.

Phosphate appears as phytic acid in plant foods, as phosphoric acid in soft drinks and as phosphate salts in dietary supplements and food additives. Phosphate is also part of a mineral hydroxyapatite in the bones and teeth.

NOTE: Phosphate as a nutrient should not be confused with a highly toxic elemental white phosphorus found in chemical laboratories.

Recommended Daily Intake

According to the U.S. Institute Of Medicine (IOM), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for phosphorus for adults is 700 mg per day [1]. Healthy individuals, including vegans and pregnant women, can easily get enough phosphorus from common plant or animal foods. Breast milk contains enough phosphorus for exclusively breastfed infants 0-6 months old [1,7,27].

Table 1. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for phosphorus
Source: the U.S. Institute Of Medicine (IOM) [1]
AGE RDA (mg)
Infants 0-6 months 100 (AI)*
Infants 7-12 months 275 (AI)*
Children 1-3 years 460
Children 4-8 years 500
Children 9-18 years, including pregnant and breastfeeding girls 1,250
Adults, 19 years and older, including pregnant and breastfeeding women 700

* AI = Adequate Intake

Foods High in Phosphorus

The richest sources of phosphorus are foods with phosphate additives: fast food, cheese, canned foods.

Phosphorus Foods Picture

Picture 1. Phosphorus-rich sources

Table 2. Foods rich in phosphorus (a non-complete list)
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) [7]
Cheese: goat, pasteurized/American, romano (100 g) 650-900
Cheese, semi/hard: blue, brick, Camembert, caraway, cheddar, colby, edam, feta, gouda, gruyere, limburger, Mexican, Monterey, provolone, Swiss, tilsit (100 g) 350-600
Fast food: burrito, hamburger, pizza, hot dog (1 serving) 100-600
Sardines, with bones (1 can, 92 g) 450
Sheep milk (8 oz, 237 mL) 400
Organ meats: brain, heart, kidney, liver (beef, chicken, lamb, pork, turkey) (3 oz, 85 g) 200-400
Formulated bar (2 oz, 57 g) 150-350
Seafood: fish (salmon, cod, pollock, shark, trout, tuna, walleye), mollusks (abalone, clams, cuttlefish, mussels, octopussi, oysters, scallops, shrimps, squids, whelks), crabs, lobsters (3 oz, 85 g) 150-350
Chocolate shake (12 oz, 237 mL) 300
Pancake, dry mix, with buttermilk (52 g) 300
Milk: cow/goat/buffalo, fat/nonfat/chocolate (1 cup, 237 mL) 200-300
Meat: beef, buffalo, chicken, venison (deer), goat, lamb, pork/bacon, rabbit, turkey (3 oz, 85 g) 150-300
Eggnog (1 cup, 254 g) 250
Snails (3 oz, 85 g) 230
Whey, acid, fluid (1 cup, 237 mL) 200
Pancakes, from recipe (3 pancakes, 120 g) 200
Egg (2 eggs, 2 x 50 g) 150-200
Milk chocolate (50 g) 100-200
Custard, egg (1/2 cup, 144 g) 180
Cold cuts: bologna, ham, pepperoni, salami (2 oz, 57 g) 100-150
Pudding (1/2 cup, 4 oz, 120 mL) 50-120
Caviar (1 oz, 28 g) 100
Meatless meatballs, sausage or fish sticks (1 cup, ~140 g) 300-650
Seeds: pumpkin, squash, sunflower (1 oz, 28 g) 330
Biscuits (2 oz, 57 g) 200-330
Morning cereals, ready-to-eat (1 cup, ~30 g cereals + water) 0-300
Soybeans (1/2 cup, 90 g) 200-300
Tempeh (1 cup, 170 g) 200
Waffles (2 pieces, 70 g) 200
Oatmeal, instant (1 cup, 234 g, prepared) 200
Potato (middle size, 200 g) 200
Popcorn (2 oz, 57 g) 150-200
Beans (adzuki, black turtle, kidney, lima, mothbeans, mungo, navy, pink, small white, yardlong, yellow, winged), peas, chickpeas, lentils (1/2 cup, 90 g) 100-200
Nuts: almonds, brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, pine-nuts, pistachios, walnuts (1 oz, 28 g); chestnuts (1 cup, 140 g) 100-200
Mushrooms (1 cup, 150 g) Up to 200
Beer (1 can, 12 oz, 355 mL) [15] Up to 175
Fruit juice (1 can, 12 oz, 355 mL) [15] Up to 175
Rice, brown (1 cup, 150 g) 150
Crackers, wheat (2 oz, 57 g) 150
Bread, whole wheat (2 slices, 60 g) 150
Bagel, wheat (100 g) 150
Tofu (1 oz, 28 g) 100-150
Tortilla chips (2 oz, 57 g) 100-150
Wild rice (1 cup, 164 g) 135
Peanut butter (2 tbsp, 30 g) 100-130
Bread, chapati, roti, commercial (1 piece, 70 g) 125
Bread, pita (6-1/2″, 100 g) 120
Baking powder (1 packet, 10 g) 700-900
Baker’s yeast (1 packet, 17 g) 350
Powders to prepare beverages (1 serving) 0-300
Soft drinks: cola with phosphoric acid (1 can, 12 oz, 355 mL) [15] 0-175
Ice tea (1 can, 12 oz, 355 mL) [15] 0-130

NOTE: Phosphorus content of food products may vary greatly among brands.

Foods Low in Phosphorus

Common foods low in phosphorus include white bread, rice, pasta, fresh fruits, most vegetables and water.

Table 3. Foods low in phosphorus (a non-complete list)
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) [7]
PLANT FOODS Phosphorus (mg)
Barley, pearled (1 cup, 160 g) 85
Macaroni (1 cup, 140 g) 80
Pastries (1 piece, 80 g) 50-80
Bulgur (1 cup, cooked with water) 75
Pretzels, hard, unsalted (2 oz, 57 g) 70
Rice, white (1 cup, 190 g) 70
Bread: French, Italian, pumpernickel, raisin, white (2 slices, 60 g) 60-70
Corn, sweet, yellow, canned (1/2 cup, 82 g) 60
English muffin (1 oz, 28 g) 50
Noodles, Japanese (1 cup, 176 g) 50
Malt syrup (1 tbsp, 21 g) 50
Cookies without nuts or chocolate (2 oz, 57 g) 20-50
Vegetables: alfalfa, asparagus, butterbur, cabbage, carrots (cooked), cauliflower, chayote, collards, dandelion, kale, leeks, lettuce, mustard greens, okra, onion, peppers, rhubarb, squash (summer), turnip/greens, water chestnut, watercress (1/2 cup) 10-50
Pie: apple, cherry, peach (1 piece, 125 g) 5-40
Couscous (1 cup, 160 g, cooked) 35
Fruits, fresh: apple/applesauce, blueberries, boysenberries, clementines, cherries, cranberries, grapes, lemon, lime, mango, pear, pineapple, plums, raspberries, tangerine (mandarin oranges), watermelon (1/2 cup) 10-35
Wine (1 glass, 5 oz, 150 mL) Up to 35
Gelatin dessert (1/2 cup, 4 oz) 30
Jicama (200 g) 30
Cereals: corn flakes, corn grits, farina, rice crisps (1 cup, cooked with water) 10-30
Beans, snap, green/yellow (1/2 cup, 60 g) 10-20
Spices: anise, chili, coriander, cumin, curry, dill, fennel, garlic, ginger, mustard, nutmeg, onion, paprika, pepper, turmeric (1 tsp) Up to 20
Syrups: cane, corn, grenadine, maple (1 tbsp, 20 g) 0-15
Jam (1 tbsp, 20 g) 10
Tapioca, pearl, dry (1 cup, 152 g) 10
Arrowroot flour (1 cup, 128 g) 10
Candies, hard, jellybeans, toffee (1 oz, 28 g) 1-10
Coffee (1 cup, 8 oz, 237 mL)–limit to 1 cup/day to prevent high potassium intake Up to 10
Tea (1 cup, 237 mL)–limit to 2 cups/day to prevent high potassium intake 0-2
Margarine (1 tbsp, 14 g) 1
Vinegar, all types (1 tbsp, 15 g) 1
Municipal water (1 cup, 237 mL) 0-1
Table sugar, white/brown (1 tsp, 3 g) 0
Vegetable oils (1 tbsp, 14 g) 0
Carbonated beverages: club soda, ginger ale, lemon-lime, orange, tonic water, root beer (12 oz, 237 mL) 0
Cheese: cream, cottage, ricotta (2 tbsp, 30 g) 30-50
Cream, liquid, half and half (1 fl oz, 30 mg) 10-45
Cake, fruit (1 piece, 65 g) 35
Salad dressing: caesar, Italian, mayonnaise, French, Russian (2 tbsp, 30 g) Up to 30
Sour cream (1 tbsp, 12 g) 10
Honey (1 tbsp, 20 g) 1

A Low-Phosphorus, Potassium and Sodium Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease

If you have a chronic kidney disease with phosphate retention, your doctor may recommend you to limit phosphorus intake to 800-1,000 mg per day [38]. The foods listed in the Table 3 above are low in phosphorus (<100 mg/serving), sodium (<300 mg/serving), potassium (<200 mg/serving) and protein, but your doctor should provide you with a list of foods appropriate for you personally.

High blood phosphate levels in individuals with chronic kidney disease are associated with increased mortality [15]. On the other hand, a low-phosphorus diet, which is usually low in protein, may lead to protein-energy wasting, which was, in one study from y. 2008, also associated with increased mortality [44]. This means everyone on a low-protein diet should take care to get enough proteins, but again, your doctor should tell you how much phosphorus and protein you can take. Some researchers suggest avoiding only foods with phosphate additives but not foods with naturally present phosphate [15].

Phosphate Food Additives with E-Numbers

Many commercially prepared foods, such as fast food, canned fish, commercial baked goods and cola, contain phosphate additives. The amount of phosphorus in these foods is usually not listed on the nutrition fact labels and in nutrient databases like USDA.gov, so, if you have a kidney disease, ask your doctor or dietitian, how much of these foods you can eat; you usually do not need to avoid them completely. On the food labels in Europe, food additives may be listed only with E-numbers and not with their full names.

  • E322  Lecithins
  • E338  Phosphoric acid
  • E339  Sodium phosphates
  • E340  Potassium phosphates
  • E341  Calcium phosphates
  • E343  Magnesium phosphates
  • E450  Diphosphates or pyrophosphates
  • E451  Triphosphates
  • E452  Polyphosphates
  • E541  Sodium aluminium phosphate (acidic sodium aluminium phosphate is used in a baking powder [leavening agent] and alkaline sodium aluminium phosphate as a food additive in processed cheese [19].
  • E542  Edible bone phosphate (used as anticaking agent and water-retaining agent)
  • E1410  Monostarch phosphate
  • E1412  Distarch phosphate
  • E1413  Phosphated distarch phosphate
  • E1414  Acetylated distarch phosphate
  • References: [6]

Phosphorus Absorption

We absorb 10-50% of organic phosphorus naturally present in plant foods, about 50% of organic phosphorus naturally present in animal foods and 80-100% of inorganic phosphorus from phosphate food additives and dietary supplements [26,27]. This means, foods with phosphate additives may be the richest sources of phosphorus that is actually absorbed.

Phosphorus is absorbed in the small intestine [27,42].

Phosphate Binders

Phosphate binders, such as calcium acetate or carbonate, sevelamer hydrochloride, lanthanum carbonate, and aluminium or magnesium hydroxide, are drugs that, when taken with meals, bind phosphorus from foods and partially prevent its absorption [30,31]. They are used to prevent high blood phosphate levels in individuals with chronic kidney disease

Is too much phosphorus from foods and drinks bad for you?

Bone Health

Diet high in both phosphorus and calcium has not been proven harmful for bones in healthy individuals. Diet high in phosphorus and low in calcium could theoretically result in osteoporosis (low bone density), but more research is warranted [1,27].


It seems that the risk of tooth decay depends more on the sugar than phosphoric acid content of cola [36,37].

Kidney Stones

There is insufficient evidence about the effect of either high- or low-phosphorus diet on the kidney stones risk [40]. In one study from y. 1992 [41], but not in another one from y. 2007 [25], regular consumption of soft drinks with phosphoric acid was associated with increased risk of kidney stones. A low-phosphorus, low-calcium diet has not been found very effective in prevention of infected, phosphate-containing kidney stones (struvite stones) [29].

Phosphorus Deficiency and Low Blood Phosphate Levels (Hypophosphatemia)

Phosphorus deficiency refers to low body phosphorus stores, which may or may not result in low blood phosphate levels, because phosphate stores are mainly within the cells.

NOTE: Even people on restricted diets (vegan, fruitarian, low-carb, raw foods), until they are healthy and eat regularly, are unlikely to develop phosphate deficiency or hypophosphatemia.

Acute hypophosphatemia can result from hyperventilation during panic attack, alcohol withdrawal or aspirin poisoning, starvation followed by a high-carbohydrate diet (refeeding syndrome), correction of hypoglycemia by intravenous glucose, or insulin injection in diabetic ketoacidosis. In all these cases, glucose quickly passes from the blood into the cells along with phosphate and thus lowers blood phosphate levels. Hypophosphatemia can also develop after the removal of overactive parathyroid glands due to quick incorporation of phosphorus into the bones (hungry bone syndrome). Symptoms are often absent but may include muscle weakness, numbness and tingling, coma or even death.

Chronic hypophosphatemia can result from reduced phosphate absorption due to long-term use of large amounts of sucralfate, aluminium, calcium or magnesium antacids, supplements or laxatives, Crohn’s or celiac disease, chronic diarrhea, vitamin D deficiency, reduced phosphorus intake in alcoholism or anorexia nervosa, or excessive phosphate loss in urine due to overactive parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism), untreated diabetes mellitus, cancer, genetic kidney diseases or heavy metal poisoning. Complications may include rickets (bone deformities in children) or osteomalacia (soft bones in adults).

Treatment may include removal of the cause, phosphate and vitamin D supplements.

References: [1,3,24]

High Blood Phosphate Levels or Hyperphosphatemia

In healthy people, diet rich in phosphorus does not likely increase blood phosphate levels but it can do so in individuals with end-stage kidney failure. Other causes include cancer, the use of calcium or phosphate supplements in high doses, vitamin D (calcitrol) intoxication, phosphate laxatives abuse and muscle damage (rhabdomyolysis). Symptoms are usually absent but may include tingling around the mouth, fatigue, itchy skin and muscle cramps. Treatment may include low-phosphorus diet, phosphate binders, diuretics and hemodialysis.


  • Hypocalcemia [4].
  • Chronic hyperphosphatemia can result in calcium-phosphate deposits and damage of the kidneys, heart valves, arteries, tendons, eyes, skin and other organs [4].
  • High and even high-normal blood phosphate levels were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease in healthy individuals [9,39and with increased mortality in individuals with heart and kidney disease, but to establish the actual cause-effect relationship more studies are needed [15,16].

Reference: [4]

Phosphate Supplements

Phosphate supplements are mainly used to correct or prevent low blood phosphate levels in severely malnourished persons, chronic alcoholics, individuals with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and after the removal of the overactive parathyroid glands.

Available forms:

  • Oral:
    • Over-the-counter (OTC): sodium and potassium phosphate alone as tablets and capsules or as part of multivitamin/mineral supplements
    • By prescription: potassium phosphate powder for solution, mainly for prevention of calcium urinary stones [13,24]
  • Intravenous infusion (by prescription): sodium and potassium phosphate


Typical doses of phosphate supplements to treat hypophosphatemia are 1-3 grams per day; it is your doctor who can prescribe appropriate dose for you, though.

Phosphate Supplements Benefits

Oral and intravenous sodium or potassium phosphate is EFFECTIVE for correcting low phosphate levels [24]. 

Phosphates are LIKELY EFFECTIVE for treatment of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia) [24]. Oral sodium/potassium phosphate reduces calcium absorption in the gut and stimulates calcium deposition to the bone and thus lowers blood calcium levels [20,32]. Intravenous phosphate is now rarely used to treat hypercalcemia because of common severe side effects [33].

Oral and intravenous sodium or potassium phosphate is POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE in prevention of  hypophosphatemia during quick carbohydrate feeding after a pronged period of starvation (refeeding syndrome) [24].

Phosphate salts are LIKELY INEFFECTIVE for improving aerobic exercise performance [24].

There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about phosphate salts effectiveness in sensitive teeth, heartburn, severe burns, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D resistant rickets, as a laxative for bowel preparation before colonoscopy [24], and in prevention of calcium kidney stones in individuals with increased calcium excretion into the urine (hypercalciuria) [49].

Safety: Side Effects, Toxicity

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for phosphorus–the amount that should not cause side effects–is 3,000-4,000 mg/day [1]. The UL does not apply to individuals with kidney failure in which maximal allowed phosphate intake should pbe determined individually. Occasional use of phosphate salts is likely safe for most people, but long-term use should be monitored by a doctor [24].

Possible side effects of oral or intravenous phosphate supplements may include nausea, diarrhea, bone or joint pain, muscle twitching (tetany) or cramps, headache, convulsions, irregular heartbeat, numbness or tingling around the lips, hands and feet [12,24]. Rarely, various ingredients of the supplement preparation can trigger severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic reaction) with hives, swollen face and lips and difficulty breathing [13].

Intravenous phosphates may, rarely, decrease white blood cells count [10]. The use of intravenous sodium phosphate along with thiazide diuretics may cause kidney damage [11].

During Pregnancy

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), phosphate supplements are pregnancy category C, which means, harmful effects for the babies are not known due to lack of human studies [11]. Sodium phosphate in pregnancy should be used only when clearly needed. According to Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, phosphate salts in doses within RDA are likely safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding [24].


Phosphate supplements overdose may cause electrolyte disturbances: hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia or metabolic acidosis. Other acute complications include acute kidney failure, severe hypotension, acute kidney failure or even death [24].

Who should avoid phosphate supplements?

  • Speak with your doctor if you intend to use phosphate salts and you have a heart, liver, kidney, lung or thyroid disease or leg swelling (edema) of any cause. Phosphate supplements may worsen burns, pancreatitis, rickets, osteomalacia, underactive parathyroid or adrenal glands and toxemia of pregnancy [24].
  • Phosphate salts should not be used in hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hypernatremia [sodium phosphate] or hyperkalemia [potassium phosphate].
  • References: [11,24]

Phosphate-Drugs Interactions

  • Supplements and drugs that reduce phosphate absorption: calcium, magnesium and aluminium antacids, iron supplements, the anticonvulsant phenytoin and bile acid binders cholestyramine and colestipol.
  • Phosphates can reduce the absorption of iron, calcium and magnesium.
  • References: [1,24,35]

Phosphates as Saline Laxatives (Enemas)

“Sodium biphosphate/sodium phosphate” is used as an osmotic laxative (as tablets or enema) to treat constipation, to prepare for colonoscopy or to restore bowel activity after surgery. It can be absorbed in the colon and cause hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia or acute kidney injury or even death [8,24].

Regulation of Blood Phosphate Levels

Blood phosphate levels are closely related to calcium levels and are regulated mainly by parathormone, vitamin D and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23).

Normal Blood Phosphate Range

Normal blood phosphate level range in adults = 2.5-4.5 mg/dL or 0.8-1.4 mmol/L [4].

References: PubMed and online medical journals

Phosphate Urine Test

Phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate excreted in urine over 24 hours. The test can be done to find the cause of abnormal blood phosphate or calcium levels or to evaluate kidney damage in chronic kidney disease, to find the cause of kidney stones, rickets or osteomalacia. The test results should be interpreted along with urine and blood levels of calcium, vitamin D and other substances.

Normal 24-hour urine phosphate range: 400-1,300 mg or 12.9-42 mmol [47] (may differ among laboratories)

Causes of increased urine phosphate (hyperphosphaturia):

  • Ingestion of large amount of foods high in phosphorus (milk, cheese, meat), diet high in fructose (at least 20% of total calories) or low in calcium or potassium
  • Medications: phosphate supplements or laxatives, diuretics (acetazolamide), corticosteroids, parathormone
  • Phosphorus poisoning
  • Diseases: untreated diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism, cancer, hypophosphatemic rickets, Fanconi syndrome, hereditary fructose intolerance
  • References: [1,45,48,50]

High amount of phosphate in the urine, for example, after drinking large amounts of milk, which is high in phosphorus and calcium, can result in formation of phosphate crystals in urine and cloudy urine [45]. A drop of acetic acid (vinegar) immediately clears urine that is cloudy due to phosphates. Increased phosphate excretion into urine by itself is not harmful but it may increase the risk of calcium kidney stones [23].

Causes of decreased urine phosphate:

  • Diet low in phosphate or high in potassium
  • Medications: phosphate binders, aluminium antacids
  • Diseases: chronic kidney disease, intestinal malabsorption diseases, hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency
  • References: [48]

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Are phosphate supplements and food additives vegan?

  • In the United States, all phosphates, except edible bone phosphate, are produced from minerals, so they are vegan [2,6,19,22]; they are also Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) [14]. In the European Union, phosphates may be derived from animals, but usually from minerals, so they are “typically vegan” [2,6,19,22].
  • Edible bone phosphate (E542) is derived from animal bones, so it is not vegan; it is also not GRAS [21].

2. What is the optimal phosphorus/calcium ratio in the diet?

As long as you consume enough of phosphorus and calcium, phosphorus/calcium ratio in your diet is probably not significant for your health [27].

  1. Phosphorus health effects  Linus Pauling Institute
  2. Polyphosphates in food products  Noshly
  3. Hypophosphatemia, lab values, causes, phosphate replacement  Emedicine
  4. Hyperphosphatemia, lab values, causes  Emedicine
  5. High phosphorus intake and mortality (NHANES study)  PubMed
  6. List of food additives with E-numbers  Food.gov.uk
  7. List of foods containing phosphorus  U.S. Department of Agriculture
  8. Sodium phosphate enemas may cause kidney injury  Food and Drug Administration
  9. Hyperphosphatemia and heart disease  Plosone
  10. Intravenous sodium phosphate side effects  Drugs.com
  11. Sodium sulfate infusion indications, contraindications  Drugs.com
  12. Sodium/potassium phosphate tablets side effects  Drugs.com
  13. Potassium phosphate powder for solution  Drugs.com
  14. List of GRAS substances  Food and Drug Administration
  15. Phosphate additives in food — a health risk  PubMed Central
  16. Health risks associated with phosphate food additives  European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
  17. Effects of phosphorus food additives in kidney dialysis patients  Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  18. Phosphate metabolism  Nature
  19. Aluminium sodium phosphate uses  Food-info.net
  20. Medical management of hypercalcemia  PubMed Central
  21. Which food ingredients are vegan?  The Vegetarian Resource Group
  22. Vegan food ingredients  The Vegetarian Resource Group
  23. Hyperphosphaturia and risk of calcium kidney stones  PubMed Central
  24. Phosphates overview, effects, safety  Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
  25. Cola and kidney disease  PubMed Central
  26. Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus  Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
  27. Phosphorus  U.S. Department of Agriculture
  28. Elemental phosphorus characteristics, dangers  Toxnet
  29. Struvite stones treatment  Emedicine
  30. Phosphate binders review  Cari.org.au
  31. Review of phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease Cochrane Summaries
  32. Hypercalcemia treatment  Emedicine
  33. Management of severe hypercalcemia  MD Consult
  34. Edible bone phosphate  World Health Organization
  35. Hypomagnesemia facts  Emedicine
  36. Regular and diet cola and dental caries  PubMed
  37. Effect of regular and diet cola on teeth erosion  PubMed
  38. Chronic kidney disease evidence-based nutrition practice guideline  Guidelines.gov
  39. Serum phosphorus levels are associated with atherosclerosis  PubMed Central
  40. Diet and fluid prescription in fluid disease  Nature
  41. Soft drinks containing phosphoric or citric acid, and kidney stones  PubMed
  42. Phosphorus absorption  PubMed Central
  43. Calcium phosphate absorption  Nutrition Journal
  44. Low-protein diet and protein wasting  Nutrition.org
  45. Simerville JA et al, 2005, Urinalysis: A Comprehensive Review  American Family Physician
  46. Calcitonin information  Colostate.edu
  47. 24-hour urine phosphate test  Muschealth.com
  48. 24-hour urine phosphate test  Mayomedicallaboratories
  49. Effect of acidic and neutral phosphates in hypercalciuria  PubMed
  50. Hyperphosphaturia differential diagnosis  DiagnosisPro

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