- Busko M, 2008, Alcohol Craving in Women, Not Men, More Likely to Be Linked to Depression Medscape
- Friel PN et al, 1995, Variability of ethanol absorption and breath concentrations during a large-scale alcohol administration study PubMed
- Lang I et al, 2007, Moderate alcohol consumption in older adults is associated with better cognition and well-being than abstinence Age and Ageing
- Manninen L et al, 2006, Heavy drinking occasions and depression PubMed
- Przybycien-Szymanska MM, 2011, Neuroendocrine Consequences of Binge Alcohol Exposure During Peri-Puberty on Functioning of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Loyola University Chicago
- Trevisan LA et al, 1998, Complications of alcohol withdrawal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Swift R et al, 1998, Alcohol hangover National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Ambien (zolpidem) and Alcohol / Food Interactions Drugs.com
- Alcohol and depression Netdoctor.co.uk
- Getachew B et al, 2010, Alcohol-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior is Associated with Cortical Norepinephrine Reduction PubMed Central
- Moberg CA et al, 210, Alcohol selectively reduces anxiety but not fear: Startle response during unpredictable vs. predictable threat PubMed Central
- Meyer TD et al, 2012, Do patients with bipolar disorder drink alcohol for different reasons when depressed, manic or euthymic? PubMed
- Sonne SC et al, 2002, Bipolar disorder and alcoholism National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Oquendo MA et al, 2010, Increased risk for suicidal behavior in comorbid bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) PubMed
- Canan F et al, 2008, Panic Disorder After the End of Chronic Alcohol Abuse: A Report of 2 Cases PubMed Central
- Cosci F et al, 2007, Alcohol use disorders and panic disorder: a review of the evidence of a direct relationship PubMed
- Goodwin RD et al, 2011, Family history of alcohol use disorders among adults with panic disorder in the community PubMed
- Josepshs RA et al, 1990, The two faces of alcohol myopia: attentional mediation of psychological stress PubMed
- Kingham M et al, 2004, Aspects of morbid jealousy BJPsych Advances
- PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
- Vollpicelli J et al, 1999, The Role of Uncontrollable Trauma in the Development of PTSD and Alcohol Addiction National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Koksinen J et al, 2009, Prevalence of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia–a systematic review and meta-analysis PubMed
- Drake RE et al, 2002, Co-Occurring Alcohol Use Disorder and Schizophrenia National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Perry G, 2011, Abstinence, heavy drinking and binge drinking all associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
- Perry G, 2010, Alcohol Consumption May Protect Against Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease, Particularly in Female Nonsmokers Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
- Neafsey EJ et al, 2011, Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk PubMed
- Yang Z, Alcohol-related psychosis Emedicine
- Susic P, Alcohol Induced Psychotic and Mood Disorders Psychtreatment.com
- Yang Z, Alcohol-related psychosis, clinical presentation Emedicine
- Yang Z, Alcohol-related psychosis, treatment and management Emedicine
- Soghoian S, Disulfiram Toxicity Clinical Presentation Emedicine
- Disulfiram side effects Drugs.com
- Mooney DK et al, 1995, The relationship between sexual insecurity, the alcohol expectation for enhanced sexual experience, and consumption patterns PubMed
- George WH et al, 2009, Indirect effects of acute alcohol intoxication on sexual risk-taking: The roles of subjective and physiological sexual arousal PubMed
- Erectile Dysfunction Fact Sheet University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
- Kiene SM et al 2009, Alcohol, Helping Young Adults have Unprotected Sex with Casual Partners: Findings from a Daily Diary Study of Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior PubMed Central
- Cheng JYW et al, 2007, Alcohol Consumption and Erectile Dysfunction: Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies Medscape
- Giancola PR et al, 2011, Alcohol, violence, and the alcohol myopia model: Preliminary findings and implications for prevention PubMed Central
- Alcohol and violence, frustration-aggression theory SIRC.org
- Giancola P, Alcohol: The Aggression Elixir? Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation
Alcohol and Psychological Disorders
Alcohol and Depression
Some people, women more likely than men, drink alcohol to get depression relief . Alcohol does not improve your mood but enhances your current mood: when you are depressed, drinking may make you more depressed.
Alcohol may cause depression relief until the blood alcohol concentration reaches about 0.1-0.15 g/100 mL blood (up to 4-7 drinks in one hour by a 160 lbs man) and above that concentration it may cause dysphoria (depression, feeling of unease). Additionally, alcohol tends to have a pleasant effect until the blood alcohol concentration is rising and unpleasant effects when it is falling (after 10-90 minutes after the last drink .
Depression is more common in binge drinkers than regular drinkers despite the same total weekly amount of alcohol drunk, probably due to frequent hangovers and withdrawals, which may be associated with depression . Binge drinking in adolescence may cause permanent brain changes that result in increased risk of depression later in adulthood .
A combination of alcohol and a sleeping pill zolpidem may cause depression .
Many chronic alcoholics are depressed until they drink, but only some of them remain depressed during abstinence . According to one 1986 study, 80% of alcoholics who have major depression, has no depression symptoms after 2 weeks of sobriety . Individuals dealing with protracted withdrawal syndrome may remain depressive for more than a year, though .
Depressed individuals who abuse alcohol are at increased risk of suicide .
Alcohol and Anxiety
Some people, women more likely than men, drink to get anxiety relief .
Alcohol may cause anxiety relief until the blood alcohol concentration reaches about 0.15 g/100 mL blood (up to 6-7 drinks in 1 hour by a 160 lbs man) and above that concentration it may cause feeling of unease and anxiety. Alcohol tends to have a pleasant effect until the blood alcohol concentration is rising and unpleasant effects, including depression, when the blood alcohol concentration is falling (after 10-90 minutes after the last drink) .
Alcohol intoxication (at 0.08 g alcohol/100 mL blood) can reduce the anxiety (worrying) about unpredicted unpleasant events, but not the fear of predicted unpleasant events, such as having a stressful speech or expecting an electric shock . With other words, alcohol intoxication by itself does not relieve anxiety when you are concentrating on an important realistic problem you have at the time.
Alcohol intoxication in combination with a distracting activity, such as reading or conversation, may decrease the anxiety about the expected unpleasant event, while neither alcohol intoxication or distraction separately do not .
Alcohol and Bipolar Disorder
Individuals with bipolar disorder tend to drink more than they are depressed . When their bipolar disorder is treated successfully they often stop to drink . Alcohol drinking may aggravate the course of bipolar disorder and increase the risk of suicide [13,14].
Alcohol and Panic Attacks
Some people drink to prevent panic attacks . This may distract them from learning to cope with the problem and, on the long-term, worsen their symptoms .
According to one 2007 study and one 2011 review study, panic disorder increases the risk of alcohol abuse, alcohol abuse increases the risk of panic attacks and the risk of alcohol abuse is increased in individuals with a family history of panic disorder [16,17].
Alcohol and Pathological Jealousy
Alcoholism may contribute to developing pathological jealousy .
Alcohol and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Many people with post-traumatic stress disorder abuse alcohol to distract themselves from unpleasant memories or as a sleep aid .
Alcohol abuse aggravates symptoms of PTSD and also increases emotional numbness, social isolation, anger and the risk of suicide .
Naltrexone may help in treatment of alcohol addiction in PTSD .
Alcohol and Schizophrenia
Individuals with schizophrenia commonly abuse alcohol, some of them to find symptoms relief or overcome boredom, others in the hope that drinking will help them built a social network and identity [22,23].
Integrated treatment of schizophrenia and alcohol abuse is more successful than separate treatment of both disorders .
Alcohol and Alzheimer’s Disease
Long-term moderate alcohol drinking, particularly in female nonsmokers, is associated with lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia than abstaining, heavy drinking or binge drinking [24,25,26].
Alcohol-induced psychosis may, rarely, develop in chronic alcoholics during or within a month of either acute alcohol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal [27,28]. Symptoms may persist from several minutes to as much as a month .
Symptoms may include distorted visual sensations (illusions), false visual sensations (visual hallucinations, such as seeing insects or worms crawling on walls or over the skin, mice running over the room, etc.), false hearing sensations (auditory hallucinations, such as “threatening voices” or hearing music), false tactile sensations, false beliefs (delusions) or fear of harm by somebody (paranoia) . A person with alcohol-induced psychosis is fully alert and oriented, unlike a person in delirium tremens, but is not aware that symptoms are caused by alcohol .
Alcohol-related psychosis may spontaneously resolve within several weeks of abstinence, but may, sometimes, develop into chronic schizophrenia-like syndrome . In this case, treatment with antipsychotic drugs and thiamin, among other, may help .
Alcohol-induced psychosis is usually related with a long history of heavy drinking and therefore bad prognosis for an individuals suffering from it .
Thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency in chronic alcoholics on a poor diet may contribute to alcohol-induced psychosis, which is usually reversible and Korsakoff psychosis with a short-term memory loss, which is usually permanent.
Disulfiram, a drug intended to help maintain abstinence, may, rarely, especially when taken in high doses, trigger psychotic symptoms [31,32].
Alcohol and Sex
In one 1995 study, sexually secure men, who believed that alcohol consumption increases pleasant sexual experience drunk more alcohol and more frequently than sexually insecure men or secure or insecure women .
Alcohol intoxication may increase the subjective feeling of sexual arousal, but may decreases sexual performance . Some, but not all, intoxicated men may experience weaker erection, mainly at blood alcohol concentrations above 0.08 g alcohol/100 mL blood .
Alcohol intoxication increases the probability of having sex with casual partners and risky sexual behavior [34,36].
Few large studies have not found association between chronic alcohol drinking and erectile dysfunction .
Alcohol and Aggression
In a hostile environment, inebriated persons tend to be more focused to salient provocative cues than to subtle inhibitory cues [38,39]. Alcohol is neither a necessary nor sufficient agent to stimulate aggression, though .
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid