- Yeomans MR, 2004, Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy PubMed
- Caton SJ et al, 2004, Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake PubMed
- Buemann B et al, 2002, The effect of wine or beer versus a carbonated soft drink, served at a meal, on ad libitum energy intake PubMed
- Shai I et al, 2007, Glycemic effects of moderate alcohol intake among patients with type 2 diabetes: a multicenter, randomized, clinical intervention trial PubMed
- Marsano LS et al, 2003, Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Its Complications National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Cirrhosis National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases
- Franke A et al, 2005, The effect of ethanol and alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying of solid meals in humans PubMed
- Franke A et al, 2008, Postprandial walking but not consumption of alcoholic digestifs or espresso accelerates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers PubMed
- Heinrich H et al, 2010, Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial PubMed
- Alcohol and the human body Intoximeters
- Alcohol Problems in Intimate Relationships: Identification and Intervention National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Maintz L et al, 2007, Histamine and histamine intolerance PubMed
- Grotheer P, 2005, Sulfites: Separating Fact from Fiction University of Florida, IFAS Extension
- Brooks PJ et al, 2009, The Alcohol Flushing Response: An Unrecognized Risk Factor for Esophageal Cancer from Alcohol Consumption PubMed Central
- Trevisan LA et al, 1998, Complications of alcohol withdrawal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
- Disulfiram side effects Drugs.com
- Lawther A et al, 1988, A survey of the occurrence of motion sickness amongst passengers at sea PubMed
- H. pylori infection symptoms Mayo Clinic
- Ansstas G, Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Clinical Presentation Emedicine
- Irritable bowel syndrome causes Mayo Clinic
- Andersohn F et al, 2004, Depressive Mood and Craving During Alcohol Withdrawal: Association and Interaction University of Göttingen
- Alcholic neuropathy The University of Chicago
- Alcoholic Neuropathy MedlinePlus
- Chiba T et al, 2000, Alcohol-related diarrhea PubMed
- Bouchoucha M et al, 1991, Recovery from disturbed colonic transit time after alcohol withdrawal PubMed
- Keshavarzian A et al, 1986, Intestinal-transit and lactose intolerance in chronic alcoholics PubMed
- Gluten-free alcoholic beverages Celiac.com
- Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment Cancer-gov
- Perlow W et al, 1977, Symptomatic intestinal disaccharidase deficiency in alcoholics PubMed
- Westerterp-Plantenga MS et al, The appetizing effect of an apéritif in overweight and normal-weight humans PubMed
- Suter PM, 2005, Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for weight gain and obesity? PubMed
Alcohol, Appetite, Digestion, Nausea, Diarrhea and Constipation
Alcohol and Appetite
In moderate drinkers, alcohol, when consumed within one hour before a meal, may stimulate appetite and therefore food and calorie intake [1,2].
Red wine may stimulate appetite more than beer, and beer more than a soft drink .
Substances other than ethanol in bitter aperitifs may stimulate appetite .
Poor appetite in chronic alcoholics may be due to depression, anxiety, nutrients deficiency (vitamins B1, B12, folate, magnesium), gastritis , alcoholic hepatitis , advanced liver cirrhosis  or cancer.
Alcohol and Digestion
Alcohol may slow down digestion, but does not necessary cause abdominal discomfort in healthy people. Alcohol can slow down gastric emptying [7,9]. In one 2008 study, 40 mL of various alcohol digestifs (40 vol% alcohol) drunk after a solid meal did not significantly stimulate or slow down gastric emptying, though .
Alcohol, Nausea and Vomiting
Different people may experience nausea or vomiting after drinking different amounts of alcohol. According to several blood alcohol concentration charts, a drinker may vomit when reaching blood alcohol concentrations between 0.12-0.25 g/100 mL blood or higher (for example, after 5-10 drinks or more in one hour by a 160 lbs man), depending on the drinking experience [10,11]. Repeated vomiting after drinking speaks for severe alcohol intoxication.
NOTE: Vomiting may eliminate some alcohol from your body only as long alcohol is in your stomach, that is roughly 5-30 minutes after drinking on an empty stomach or up to an hour and half when drinking after a meal.
Causes of ACUTE nausea or vomiting related to alcohol:
- Stomach irritation
- Psychological aversion to alcohol
- Hypersensitivity or allergic reaction to ethanol, sulfites , histamine  or other substances in alcoholic beverages
- Deficiency of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a genetic disorder found mainly in the East Asians causing “Asian flush reaction” with facial flushing and nausea 
- Hangover 
- Alcohol withdrawal syndrome 
- Drinking alcohol during travel may aggravate symptoms of the motion sickness .
- Disulfiram (a drug to discourage drinking) may cause nausea within minutes of starting drinking .
- Combining alcohol with drugs, such as acid-lowering drugs (cimetidine), analgesics (phenacetin, phenylbutazone), antiasthmatics (albuterol, theophylline), antibiotics (cefamandole, chloramphenicol, griseofulvin, isoniazid, metronidazole, nitrofurantion, nitromidazole, sulfamethoxazole, tolbutamide), antifungals (ketokonazole), antidiabetics (chlorpropramide, tolbutamide), nitrates (isosorbide dinitrate, nitroglycerine) or chemotherapy.
Causes of PERSISTENT nausea or vomiting related to alcohol:
- Acute gastritis , or chronic atrophic gastritis due to H. pylori infection 
- Folate deficiency
- Magnesium deficiency
- Alcoholic ketoacidosis after exclusive alcohol drinking without eating (fruity breath odor) 
- Acute or chronic pancreatitis 
- Advanced liver cirrhosis 
Alcohol and Constipation
In individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), alcohol may trigger or aggravate constipation .
In the first days of alcohol abstinence after long-term drinking, constipation may develop, especially in depressed individuals .
In those who drink heavily for 10 or more years, a nerve damage called alcoholic neuropathy may result in constipation, numbness, “pins and needless” in hands and feet and muscle weakness, which may improve after stopping drinking and proper diet [22,23].
Alcohol and Diarrhea
- Even in healthy people, binge drinking may trigger diarrhea .
- Diarrhea may be one of the hangover symptoms .
In individuals suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), drinking even moderate amount of alcohol, especially beer or red wine, may trigger diarrhea .
Chronic alcoholics may have diarrhea due to increased colon motility , lactose intolerance , poor diet resulting in a deficiency of folate, vitamin A, vitamin C or zinc, or damaged nerves (alcoholic polyneuropathy) . All these conditions may improve after stopping drinking and proper diet.
In chronic drinkers with advanced chronic pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis, steathorrhea (fatty diarrhea with pale stools) may occur due to fat malabsorption.
In individuals with celiac disease, beer, barley malt beverages, wine coolers and certain liqueurs that contain gluten may trigger diarrhea . Most ciders (not containing barley malt) and unflavored wines, sherry, mead, wine and fruit brandies, gin, martini, vermouth, whiskey, rum, tequila, ouzo, vodka and other unflavored spirits should be gluten-free .
In cancer patients on chemotherapy, alcohol may make diarrhea worse .
In individuals with lactose intolerance, certain beers, ciders, liqueurs and other sweetened alcoholic beverages that contain lactose may trigger diarrhea. Chronic alcohol drinking reduces the activity of the small intestinal enzyme lactase, which may result in lactose intolerance in black, but not white Americans [1,2,29].
Alcohol and Obesity
Alcohol drinking by itself does not cause obesity; it is a total calorie excess that results in obesity. In general, regular moderate drinking does not seem to be associated with obesity .
Heavy drinking and binge drinking in drinkers who eat regularly often lead to obesity, but in drinkers who do not eat regularly, it may lead to malnutrition and weight loss.
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid