- O’Donnel, K., 2012, p. 320, Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology
- Polyols, FAQ European Association of Polyol Producers
- Polyols & gastrointestinal effects Calorie Control Council
- Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers Food Standards Agency
- List of GRAS substances US Food and Drug Administration
- Tabele uber fruchtzucker- / sorbit- und traubenzuckergehalt Fructose.at
- Dietary fructose and gastrointestinal symptoms: a review Bashar.org.il
- Deshpande, A. et al, 2008, The impact of polyol-containing chewing gums on dental caries: a systematic review of original randomized controlled trials and observational studies PubMed
- Mickenautsch, S. et al, 2007, Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries ─ a systematic review Repositorio Institutional Universidade de Brasilia
- Jadad, A., 2008, Case Study: Polyol Chewing Gums – A Systematic Review of the International Literature Alliance for Cavity-Free Future
- Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the sugar replacers xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt, erythritol, D-tagatose, isomaltulose, sucralose and polydextrose and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses European Food Safety Authority
- Glycemic index of sorbitol Glycemicindex.com
- Outbreak of Diarrhea Linked to Dietetic Candies — New Hampshire Center for the Disease Control and Prevention
- Natah, SS et al, 1997, Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sugar Alcohols ─ Polyols
Definition of Sugar Alcohols (Polyols)
Sugar alcohols are low-calorie sweeteners similar to sugars but with additional “alcohol” (OH) groups, so they are also called polyols [poly = multiple; -ol refers to alcohol] .
Picture 1. Structural formula of 2 polyols: sorbitol and xylitol
(compared with glucose)
Sugar alcohols are not true sugars; they are usually less sweet than sugars and are poorly digestible and incompletely absorbed. They provide 2.4 kilocalories per gram (except erythritol, which provides no calories), as opposed to sugars, which provide about 4 kilocalories per gram . Sugar alcohols have nothing with the drinking alcohol (ethanol): they do not make you drunk and are not toxic.
Sugar alcohols, like other carbohydrates, are not essential nutrients, which means you do not need to consume them to be healthy.
Chart 1. Examples of Sugar Alcohols in Foods
|Glycerol (Glycerin)||E422; GRAS|
|Polyglycitol syrup or hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)||E964|
Chart 1 Legend: Sugar alcohols with E-numbers are permitted in EU . GRAS = Generally Considered As Safe by the US Food and Dug Administration (FDA) .
Some other sugar alcohols used outside of the US and EU: arabitol, dulcitol, galactitol, iditol, ribitol and threitol.
On the Nutrition Facts labels, sugar alcohols may be listed under carbohydrates as “sugar alcohols” or “polyols” or may not be listed at all. On the Ingredient Lists, sugar alcohols may be listed as “polyols” or by their exact names, such as sorbitol or xylitol.
Foods That Contain Sugar Alcohols
Sugar alcohols naturally occur in certain fruits: prunes, sweet cherries, peaches, apples, pears and berries [6,7].
Sugar alcohols as food additives are usually artificially produced from sugars or starch (from corncobs) and can be used as sugar substitutes in “no sugar”, “low calorie” or “diet” foods, such as candies, NAS caramels (NAS = No Added Sugar), jelly beans, chewing gums, ice creams, cookies, chocolates, protein bars, baked goods, fillings, fruit spreads and soft drinks.
Sugar alcohols can be also found in medicinal syrups (one dose of cough syrup may contain > 10 g sugar alcohols), toothpastes and lozenges.
Are sugar alcohols good for you?
Unlike sugars, sugar alcohols do not promote tooth decay, since the bacteria in mouth do not readily convert them to acids . Xylitol and, to a lesser extent, sorbitol may even have a protective effect on teeth [8,9,10].
Blood Glucose and Diabetes
Sugar alcohols raise blood glucose levels less than sugars ─ they have low glycemic index (GI <10) [11,12,14].
Are sugar alcohols bad for you? Side Effects
Polyols belong to FODMAPs, that is fermentable oligo-, di- or monosaccharides and polyols, which are poorly digestible but can be broken down (fermented) by normal large intestinal bacteria. In sensitive individuals, they can cause abdominal bloating, excessive gas or diarrhea within several hours of ingestion.
When consumed in large amounts (probably more than 20 grams) by healthy adults or in small amounts (few grams) by children or individuals with fructose malabsorption or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), polyols, except erythritol, may have a laxative effect [3,13].
All sugars alcohols listed in the Chart 1 above are considered safe as food additives in EU . Currently, only glycerol, mannitol and sorbitol are Generally Considered As Safe (GRAS) by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) .
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Are acesulfame-K, aspartame, splenda and stevia sugar alcohols?
No. They are low-calorie sweeteners but not sugar alcohols.
2. What is sugar alcohol in sugar-free gum and candies?
Chewing gums and candies may contain erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol or xylitol.
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal