- Copper Linus Pauling Institute
- List of foods high in copper US Department of Agriculture
- Shankar P et al, 2010, Micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery (PubMed)
- Copper Emedicine
- Wilson disease National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
- Low-copper diet for Wilson disease Gicare.com
- Copper uses WebMD
- Copper side effects WebMD
What is copper?
Copper is a mineral, a metal that is an essential nutrient to human health.
The chemical symbol for copper is Cu.
Copper is needed for :
- Energy release from foods (as part of an enzyme cytochrome c oxidase)
- Recruiting iron from the body stores
- Integrity of connective tissue in the skin, bones, heart muscle and vessels
- Synthesis of signaling molecules in the brain (neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine)
- Synthesis of the nerve sheets
- Synthesis of the pigment melanin, which gives color to the skin, hair and eyes
In the blood, copper is bound to a protein ceruloplasmin that acts a s a body copper store.
How much copper do you need?
According to Institute of Medicine in the U.S., the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for copper for adults is 900 micrograms (1 mg)/ day .
Copper Rich Foods
- PLANT FOODS: nuts, seeds, legumes, cereal grains, potatoes, tomatoes
- ANIMAL FOODS: liver, oysters, clams, crabs
- Municipal water in some areas and some mineral waters may be high in copper.
- Human breast milk contains about 500 mcg (o.5 mg) copper per liter . The Adequate Intake Level (AI) for copper for infants 0-6 months old is 200 mcg/day and for 7-12 months old infants 220 mcg/day .
Chart 1. Foods High in Copper
|PLANT FOODS||Copper (mcg)|
|Baking chocolate (1 oz, 28 g)||920|
|Chestnuts (1 cup, 237 mL)||725|
|Mushrooms, shiitake (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||650|
|Cashew nuts (1 oz, 28 g)||630|
|Sunflower seeds (1 oz, 28 g)||520|
|Hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, walnuts (1 oz, 28 g)||450-500|
|Tomato paste (1/2 cup)||500|
|Artichokes, globe (1 cup, 237 mL)||390|
|Pumpkin seeds (1 oz, 28 g)||390|
|Almonds, pecans, pistachios (1 oz, 28 g)||330-380|
|Turnip and beet greens (1 cup, 237 mL)||360|
|Sweet potatoes (1 vacuum pack, 250 g)||350|
|Soybeans (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||350|
|Spinach (1 cup, 237 mL)||310|
|Beans, navy, white (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||145-300|
|Soy milk (1 cup, 237 mL)||295|
|Chickpeas (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||290|
|Potatoes without skin (1 cup, 237 mL)||260|
|Blackberries, raspberries (1 cup, 237 mL)||240-260|
|Lentils (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||250|
|Buckwheat groats (1 cup, 237 mL)||245|
|Cowpeas (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||230|
|Rice, brown (1 cup, 237 mL)||200|
|Tofu (1 piece, 80 g)||190|
|Vegetables: asparagus, kale, kohlrabi, sauerkraut, squash (1 cup, 237 mL)||170-230|
|Peanut butter (2 tbsp, 32 g)||185|
|Cornmeal, yellow (1 cup, 237 mL)||180|
|Mango (1 cup, 237 mL)||180|
|Dates, deglet noor (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||180|
|Peas, split (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||180|
|Shredded wheat cereal (2 biscuits)||170|
|Cherries, sour, red (1 cup, 237 mL)||170|
|Barley, pearled (1 cup, 237 mL)||165|
|Coconut meat (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||155|
|Prunes (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||150|
|Pineapple (1 cup, 237 mL)||150|
|Miso (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||150|
|Beef liver (3 oz, 85 g)||12,400|
|Crabs, Alaska king (3 oz, 85 g)||1,000|
|Oysters, clams (3 oz, 85 g)||580-670|
|Chicken or turkey giblets (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||200-400|
|Shrimps, canned (3 oz, 85 g)||255|
|Duck meat (3 oz, 85 g)||200|
|Salmon, chinook (3 oz, 85 g)||200|
|Sardines, canned (3 oz, 85 g)||160|
|Chocolate milk (1 cup, 237 mL)||160|
Chart 1 source: USDA.gov . All listed foods are ready to eat.
Copper Deficiency: Causes, Symptoms
Normal “free serum copper” levels are 10-15 mcg/dL and “total copper” levels are 64-140 mcg/dL .
Copper deficiency may occur in preterm infants, infants fed with cow’s milk formula, chronic alcoholics, individuals with cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s or celiac disease or other small intestinal disorder affecting absorption of copper, gastric bypass (bariatric surgery for weight loss) , kidney patients on hemodialysis, those who take zinc supplements or a metal binder penicillamine and in individuals with hereditary disorders of copper metabolism .
Symptoms of copper deficiency can include anemia that cannot be corrected with iron supplements, low level of white blood cells (leukopenia) resulting in increased susceptibility for infections, bone disorders including osteoporosis in small children, and loss of pigmentation .
Without prescription (over-the-counter):
- Oral copper supplements include cupric oxide, copper gluconate, copper sulfate, and copper amino acid chelates.
- Cupric chloride is intended for use in the solutions for total parenteral nutrition (TNP) and not for direct intravenous or intramuscular injections.
Possible Copper Benefits
Copper supplements are EFFECTIVE in treatment of copper deficiency .
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about copper effectiveness in prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, dental plaques, osteoporosis, skin conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or wound healing or in improving immunity [1,7].
Copper Safety: Side Effects, Toxicity
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for copper–the amount that should not cause side effects–for adults is 10 mg/day .
Acute Copper Toxicity (Copper Overdose)
Copper in large amounts may be toxic; intoxication is usually due to drinking beverages from copper containers or contaminated water supplies. In the U.S., the maximal allowed copper concentration in water is 1.3 mg/liter . The main symptoms of acute copper poisoning are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and, in severe cases–after taking as little as 1 g of copper sulfate–liver and kidney failure, coma and death [1,8].
Chronic Copper Toxicity
Chronic intake of copper in high enough amounts may cause liver or kidney damage . Do not take copper supplements without a doctor’s approval, if you have a liver, biliary or kidney disease. Copper may be absorbed from a copper intrauterine device.
Wilson’s disease is a genetic disorder in which copper cannot be properly secreted from the liver into the bile, so it accumulates in the liver, brain, kidneys and eyes [1,5]. Symptoms usually appear between 5 and 35 years of age and can include enlarged liver or spleen, jaundice, leg swelling, tremor, muscle stiffness, and brownish Kayser-Fleischer rings in the iris and cornea of the eye . Diagnosis is made by checking the blood copper and ceruloplasmin levels (both are usually low, except in acute phase) and liver biopsy. Treatment is by zinc supplements that bind copper in the gut and slow down its absorption, or by trientine hydrochloride and d-penicillamine that bind copper in the body and remove it through the kidneys. Subsequent copper accumulation is prevented by a low-copper diet.
Chart 2. Low-Copper Diet for Wilson’s Disease
|Allowed foods (<100 mcg copper/serving)||Limit foods containing 100-200 mcg copper to 6 servings/day||Avoid foods containing more than 200 mcg copper/serving|
|Meats and fish||Chicken and turkey light meet, beef, cold cuts and frankfurters (without pork)||Fish, turkey and chicken dark meat (3 oz), peanut butter (2 tbsp)||Lamb, pork, pheasant quail, duck, goose, squid, salmon, shellfish (oysters, scallops, shrimp, lobster, clams, crabs), organ meats (liver, kidneys), meat gelatin|
|Dairy and eggs||Most dairy products, eggs||Chocolate milk|
|Vegetables||Most vegetables||Beets (1/2 cup), spinach (1/2 cup), tomato juice and other tomato products (1/2 cup), broccoli (1/2 cup), asparagus (1/2 cup), potatoes (1/2 cup), pumpkin (3/4 cup), parsnips (2/3 cup), winter and summer squash (1/2 cup)||Vegetable juice cocktail, mushrooms, fresh sweet potatoes, turnip greens, kale, kohlrabi, sauerkraut, globe artichokes|
|Legumes||Bean sprouts (1 cup), green peas (1/2 cup)||Dried beans and peas, soybeans, lentils, soy flour, soy grits, tofu, soy protein meat substitutes|
|Nuts and seeds||All nuts and seed|
|Fruits||Most fruits, including fruits dried at home||Mango (1/2 cup), papaya (1/4 average), pear (1 medium), pineapple (1/2 cup)||Nectarine, avocado, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, commercially dried fruits including raisins, dates, prunes|
|Cereals||White breads & pasta, rice, regular oatmeal, cereals with < 100 mcg copper per serving, all others not listed on the right||Whole-wheat bread (1 slice), whole wheat crackers (6), instant oatmeal (1/2 cup), cereals with 100-200 mcg copper per serving||Millet, barley, wheat germ, buckwheat, couscous, bran breads, cereals with >200 mcg copper per serving|
|Fats||Butter, cream, margarine, mayonnaise, non-dairy creamer, sour cream, oils, salad dressings (made from allowed ingredients)||Olives (2 medium)|
|Sweets||Most sweets, jams, jellies, candies, carob, flavoring extracts||Licorice (1 oz), syrups (1 oz)||Candy with nuts, chocolate, or cocoa|
|Beverages, other||Coffee, tea, fruit juices, fruit-flavored beverages, lemonade, soups made with allowed ingredients||Cereal beverages (1 cup), carbonated beverages (12 oz), ketchup (2 tbsp), dehydrated and canned soups||Instant breakfast beverages, mineral water, soy-based beverages, vegetable juice mix, cocoa, alcohol, chocolate, copper-fortified formulas, brewer’s yeast, multivitamin supplements with copper|
Chart 2 source: Gicare.com . This is only an informative chart; ask your doctor for a diet appropriate for you personally.
Copper Interactions With Drugs and Nutrients
High doses of zinc supplements and antacids taken for prolonged periods reduce copper absorption, which may lead to copper deficiency . Penicillamine (a metal binder) stimulates copper excretion .