- L-Isoleucine PubChem
- List of foods high in isoleucine US Department of Agriculture
- Giacoia GP et al, 1993, Acrodermatitis enteropathica-like syndrome secondary to isoleucine deficiency during treatment of maple syrup urine disease PubMed
- Tornqvist K et al, 1996, Corneal deepithelialization caused by acute deficiency of isoleucine during treatment of a patient with maple syrup urine disease PubMed
- Guttuso T et al, 2008, Effects of L-isoleucine and L-valine on hot flushes and serum homocysteine: a randomized controlled trial PubMed
- van Vliet D et al, 2014, Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review PubMed Central
- Alam NH et al, 2011, L-isoleucine-supplemented Oral Rehydration Solution in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial PubMed Central
- Maple syrup urine disease MedlinePlus
- Methylmalonic acidemia MedlinePlus
- Propionic acidemia, dietary treatment Emedicine
- Amino acid ChemPep
What is isoleucine?
Isoleucine abbreviation (symbol): Ile
Isoleucine Functions in the Human Body
- Important for synthesis of hemoglobin and other proteins, detoxification of nitrogen wastes, wound healing and immunity 
- A glucogenic amino acid — it can be converted into glucose 
- A ketogenic amino acid — it can be converted into ketones 
Foods Rich in Isoleucine
- ANIMAL FOODS: pork, beef, veal, lamb, chicken, turkey, fish, cheese 
- PLANT FOODS: wheat germ, legumes, seeds and baker’s yeast 
Foods low in isoleucine: cereals (except wheat germ), fruits and vegetables .
Isoleucine deficiency can occur due to the isoleucine-free diet in a maple syrup urine disease, methylmalonic acidemia, propionic acidemia . Deficiency can affect eye cornea (vision disturbance), skin (dermatitis) and intestinal lining (diarrhea) [3,4].
Oral L-isoleucine supplements without prescription (over-the-counter) are available.
Possible Isoleucine Supplements Benefits
Isoleucine supplements are PROBABLY INEFFECTIVE in the prevention or treatment of hot flushes in postmenopausal women .
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about the effectiveness of isoleucine supplements in:
- Increasing muscle mass or improving athletic performance (see branched-chain amino acids)
- Prevention of essential amino acid deficiency in individuals on protein-restricted diets, such as in methylmalonic acidemia, propionic acidemia and maple syrup urine disease 
- Reduction of acute diarrhea in children, when added to oral rehydration solution 
Isoleucine Safety: Side Effects, Toxicity
The safety of isoleucine supplements is described under branched-chain amino acids.
Who should limit isoleucine intake?
Individuals with the following conditions should limit isoleucine intake from foods and supplements:
- Maple syrup urine disease 
- Methylmalonic acidemia 
- Propionic acidemia