- Malainer C, 2010, master thesis: Enzymatic synthesis and investigation of novel galacto-oligosaccharides Universitat fur Bodenkultur
- Engfer MB et al, 2000, Human milk oligosaccharides are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis in the upper gastrointestinal tract The American Journal of Nutrition
- Roberfroid, M., 2007, Prebiotics: the concept revisited The Journal of Nutrition
- Bode L, 2012, Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama PubMed Central
- McGuire W, 2003, Donor human milk versus formula for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review BMJ
Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMO)
What are human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)?
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are a mixture of indigestible oligosaccharides composed of glucose, galactose, fucose, sialic acid and N-acetyl-glucosamine . Human breast milk contains about 5-10 grams HOS per liter (cow’s milk in infant formula contains only traces of oligosaccharides) . HMO is considered a soluble fiber .
Possible HMO Benefits
SUGGESTED HMO EFFECTS, but more studies warranted :
- HMO may reduce the attachment of bacteria in the throat, esophagus and small intestine and thus help to prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections .
- HMO is absorbed partly intact and excreted in the urine, and may be protective against urinary tract infections .
- HMO may help to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)–a severe inflammation of the intestine–in sick infants, especially premature infants .
HMO is PROBABLY NOT EFFECTIVE as a prebiotic (a substance that promotes the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria) [3,4].