- Application for the approval of isomaltulose Advisory Comittee on Novel Foods and Processes
- GRAS Notification – Exemption Claim for Isomaltulose (Palatinose TM) US Food and Drug Administration
- Achten J et al, 2007, Exogenous Oxidation of Isomaltulose Is Lower than That of Sucrose during Exercise in Men The Journal of Nutrition
- Bi L et al, 2003, Exercise and gastrointestinal function and disease: an evidence-based review of risks and benefits PubMed
- Food Labeling: Health Claims; Dietary Noncariogenic Carbohydrate Sweeteners and Dental Caries US Food and Drug Administration
- Lina BA et al, 2002, Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies PubMed
- Mitchell H, 2006, Sweeteners-and-Sugarf-Alternatives-in-Food-Technology
- Bruner S et al, 2012, Metabolic effects of replacing sucrose by isomaltulose in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind trial PubMed
- Novel Food European Commission
- Applications under Regulation (EC) N° 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council European Commission
- Humada S, 2002, Role of sweeteners in the etiology and prevention of dental caries Pure and Applied Chemistry
- 2009, Isomaltulose-containing instant beverage powder Free Patents Online
- 13718-94-0(PALATINOSE) Product Description Chemical Book
What is isomaltulose?
Isomaltulose, also called palatinose, is a simple carbohydrate, a disaccharide, which is, like sucrose, composed of glucose and fructose, but with a stronger alpha-1,6 glycosidic bond between them, which makes it slowly digestible .
Nutrition Facts for Isomaltulose
- Calories per gram = ~4 
- Glycemic index = 32-37 [7-p.9], which makes it a slow carb
- Net carbohydrates = 100%
- Sweetness, relative to sucrose = 42% 
Isomaltulose is a source of energy – it can provide 4 kilocalories per gram, which is about the same as sucrose [1,2].
Isomaltulose naturally occurs in small amounts in sugar cane syrup and honey .
As a sweetener, isomaltulose is produced from beet sugar (sucrose) by using the enzyme sucrose isomerase obtained from the non-pathogenic bacterium Protaminobacter rubrum [1,2].
Isomaltulose may be expected in the more expensive “healthy foods” category of beverages, dilutable soft drinks, sport drinks, “near water,” beers, dairy products, ready-to-eat cereals, cereal bars, energy tablets, baked goods, confectionery, candies, chocolate bars and vitamin/mineral supplements .
Isomaltulose is slowly but completely digested in the small intestine by the enzyme isomaltase; its digestive products glucose and fructose are absorbed in the small intestine [1,3,4].
Individuals with a rare genetic disorder sucrase-isomaltase deficiency who have a lack of the enzyme sucrase-isomaltase deficiency can experience abdominal bloating and diarrhea after ingesting a certain amount of isomaltulose.
Possible Isomaltulose Benefits
Isomaltulose does not promote tooth decay [5,6].
Isomaltulose has a low glycemic index (GI = 32-37) and low insulinemic response, so it might be more suitable for diabetics than sucrose [1,2,6,7-p.9]. In one 2012 study, replacement of sucrose with isomaltulose for 12 weeks in individuals with diabetes 2 resulted in lower blood triglyceride levels but not lower HbA1c levels .
Isomaltulose Safety: Toxicity, Side Effects
In the European Union (EU), isomaltulose is considered a novel food – a food that was not used in considerable amounts in the EU before the year 1997 [9,10].
Isomaltulose has got the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . Isomaltulose ingested by healthy individuals in amounts up to 50 g per serving have not caused any side effects [2,6]. Isomaltulose has not been found toxic, carciogenic or mutagenic and allergic reactions to isomaltulose are not known .
Who should avoid isomaltulose?
Individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and saccharase-isomaltase deficiency should completely avoid isomaltulose.
Isomaltulose and Cooking
- Isomaltulose is commercially available as a white, crystalline, odorless powder, 42% as sweet as sucrose .
- Isomaltulose is very stable and has low hygroscopicity – it does not readily attracts moisture .
- Solubility of anhydrous isomaltulose in water at 20° C is 41-49 g/100 mL [12, producers].
- Melting point of isomaltulose is 253-262 °F (123-128 °C) [1,13].
- Isomaltulose is a reducing sugar; the Maillard browning reaction with amino acids occurs at 284 °F (140 °C) .
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal
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