- Algin – a brown seaweed polysaccharide Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- 2 Torsdottir, I. et al, 1991, A Small Dose of Soluble Alginate-Fiber Affects Postprandial Glycemia and Gastric Emptying in Humans with Diabetes The Journal of Nutrition
- Quartarone, G., 2013, Gastroesophageal reflux in pregnancy: a systematic review on the benefit of raft forming agents PubMed
- Commission regulation (EU) No 1129/2011 The Official Journal of the European Union (eur-lex.europa.eu)
- Michel, C. et al, 1996, In vitro fermentation by human faecal bacteria of total and purified dietary fibres from brown seaweeds PubMed
- The seaweed site: information on marine algae Alginates
- Algin WebMD
- Birketvedt, GS et al, 2005, Experiences with three different fiber supplements in weight reduction PubMed
- Effects of a Mixing Tea Drink Containing Depolymerized Sodium Alginate on Serum Total Cholesterol and Assessment of its Safety280 Institut de l’information scientifique et technique
- List of GRAS substances U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- Mandel et al, 2001, Review article: alginate-raft formulations in the treatment of heartburn and acid reflux Wiley Online Library
Algin and Alginate
What are algin, alginic acid and alginate?
- Algin is a natural, indigestible polysaccharide extracted from brown marine algae, such as kelps and wracks [1,6].
- Alginic acid is a gel-forming substance obtained by adding mineral acids to algin.
- Alginates are salts of alginic acid; examples are sodium, calcium and ammonium alginate.
The term algin is often used for all algin compounds, including alginic acid and alginates.
Algin is composed of mannuronic and guluronic acid .
Sodium Alginate Is a Viscous Soluble Fiber
Sodium alginate is a viscous soluble fiber. It is fermentable by normal intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can be absorbed and may provide up to 2 kilocalories per gram of algin [2,5]. Physically, alginates are gels or hydrocolloids, which are semi-solid substances when dissolved in water.
Sodium, potassium, ammonium and magnesium alginate are soluble, while calcium alginate and alginic acid are insoluble in water .
Alginate as a Food Additive
Alginates can be used as thickeners in dairy products (creams), bakery jellies, cake fillings, beer (as a foam stabilizer), pre-cooked foods, ready-to-eat cereals, vinegars and soybean products. On the food products in the EU, algin is labeled as E400 (alginic acid), E401 (sodium alginate), E402 (potassium alginate), E403 (ammonium alginate), E404 (calcium alginate) and E405 (propylene glycol alginate) .
Supplements Health Benefits
Sodium alginate supplements are available as powder or capsules.
There is insufficient scientific evidence about effectiveness of alginate in reducing blood cholesterol or glucose levels, slowing gastric emptying or reduction of absorption of radioactive elements from foodstuffs after nuclear accidents . In one study in overweight adults, adding alginate supplements to meals did not help in weight loss .
Sodium Alginate as an Antacid
Sodium alginate, either used alone or in combination with antacids, are effective in preventing heartburn (a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease – GERD) in infants and children .
Safety and Side Effects
Alginates used in foods are Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . Some individuals who are allergic to shellfish may be also allergic to alginate.
According to one 2103 systematic review of studies, alginate is safe and effective in treatment of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) in pregnancy , but more research is warranted.
Other Seaweeds Used in Foods
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
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