- Seaweed products Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- Chawla, R. et al, 2010, Soluble Dietary Fiber Wiley Online Library
- Nussinovitch, A., 1997, Hydrocolloid Applications: Gum Technology in the Food and Other Industries
- Agar, last reviewed 2012, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
- List of GRAS substances U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Agar or agar-agar is a dry extract of red marine algae (seaweeds), which contains soluble fiber [1,2]. It is used as a food additive and supplement. Agar-agar in Malay means “jelly.”
Agar is a mixture of indigestible polysaccharides agarose and agaropectin, which are composed of galactose molecules, some of which contain sulfur .
Agar-agar is insoluble in cold but soluble in boiling water. When boiled, agar becomes liquid and when cooled it forms a clear, gel-like substance . Agar’s melting temperature is 85-95 °C (185-203 °F) and gelling temperature (when cooled down) is 30-40 °C (86-104 °F) .
Agar-agar is indigestible, but large intestinal bacteria can break it down (ferment) to absorbable nutrients, mainly short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can probably provide up to 2 kilocalories per gram .
Origin and Uses in Foods
Agar-agar is produced mainly in Japan, South America and Mediterranean countries.
Agar as a food additive is used as a thickener or “vegetable gelatin” or “vegetarian gelatin substitute.” It is used in pie fillings, meringues, ices, doughnut glaze, cream shells, sherbets, cream cheeses, canned and cured meats, sauces, noodles, baked products, soups, yogurts, cakes, ice creams, puddings, jelly candies and Japanese desserts, such as mitsumame and mizuyokan .
Agar powder and agar flakes are available in stores.
A Japanese word for agar is kanten. On the food products in the EU, agar is labeled with an E-number E406.
Agar is available over-the-counter as a soluble fiber supplement or bulk-forming laxative in the form of powder and capsules.
Possible Agar Health Benefits
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about beneficial effects of agar on the following conditions .
- In Japan, agar, as part of “kanten diet plan” is used to promote weight loss, since it supposedly has a satiating effect.
- Agar capsules are sold as laxatives, because of its supposed bulk-forming properties.
- Agar has been also used to lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus.
Agar Safety and Side Effects
Agar, as a food additive is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) . Agar may cause mild diarrhea and, theoretically, when ingested with insufficient fluid, esophageal or bowel obstruction . Allergy to agar is possible.
Do not take agar if you have trouble swallowing or bowel obstruction or if you are pregnant. There is insufficient reliable information about safety of agar during pregnancy .
Agar vs Gelatin
Related dietary fiber:
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
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