- Sodium Linus Pauling Institute
- Ellison DH, Disorders of sodium balance Kidneyatlas
- Jeukendrup AE et al, 2009, Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery Nutrition & Metabolism
- Gisolfi CV et al, 1995, Effect of sodium concentration in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on intestinal absorption PubMed
- Sodium and salt American Heart Association
- List of foods high in sodium US Department of Agriculture
- Bode C et al, 2003, Effect of alcohol consumption on the gut PubMed
- Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine, Clinical Presentation Emedicine
- Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion, Clinical Presentation Emedicine
- Androgué HJ et al, 2000, Hyponatremia The New England Journal of Medicine
- de Virkejsluth LRH et al, 2002, Life-threatening hypokalaemia and lactate accumulation after autointoxication with Stacker 2®, a ‘powerful slimming agent PubMed Central
- Hypernatremia Merck Manual, Professional Version
- Water and Electrolytes, Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition, National Center for Biotechnology Information
- Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake US Food and Drug Administration
- Rosner MH et al, 2007, Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
- Makkar R, 2008, What are the caveats to using sodium phosphate agents for bowel preparation? Cleveland Clinic
- The role of sodium in sport drinks EUFIC
- Hydration status and sport drinks for athletes Peak Performance
- New formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with reduced osmolarity UNICEF
- Aburto NJ et al, 2013, Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses PubMed
- Graudal NA et al, 2011, Effects of low salt diet on blood pressure, hormones and lipids in people with normal blood pressure and in people with elevated blood pressure Cochrane
- 2007, Salt and Hypertension (Professional Paper) Heart Foundation
- 2008, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension – Sodium Study (DASH-Sodium) National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
- Stamler J, INTERSALT study, 1984-1997 University of Minnesota
- Adler AJ et al, 2014, Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease Cochrane
- Felder RA et al, 2013, Diagnostic tools for hypertension and salt sensitivity testing PubMed Central
- Hooper L et al, 2002, Systematic review of long term effects of advice to reduce dietary salt in adults PubMed Central
- Rebholz CM et al, 2012, Physical Activity Reduces Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure PubMed Central
- 2013, Recurrent Nephrolithiasis in Adults: Comparative Effectiveness of Preventive Medical Strategies Effective Health Care
- Taylor EN et al, 2004, Dietary Factors and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Men: New Insights after 14 Years of Follow-up Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
- Eisner BH et al, 2009, Impact of urine sodium on urine risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis PubMed
- Calcium Linus Pauling Institute
- Park SM et al, 2015, Effect of high dietary sodium on bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Pogson Z et al, 2011, Does reducing the amount of salt in a diet improve asthma symptoms? Cochrane
- Joosten MM et al, 2014, Sodium excretion and risk of developing coronary heart disease PubMed
- Türk EE et al, 2005, Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic–report of three autopsy cases ResearchGate
- Zhong C et al, 2012, Sodium intake, salt taste and gastric cancer risk according to Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking, histological type and tumor site in China PubMed
- Wang XQ et al, 2009 Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk: Epidemiological and biological evidence PubMed Central
- D’Elia L et al, 2014, Dietary salt intake and risk of gastric cancer PubMed
- Shikata K et al, 2006, A prospective study of dietary salt intake and gastric cancer incidence in a defined Japanese population: the Hisayama study PubMed
- 2012, Effects of reduced sodium intake on cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke World Health Organization
- Pogson ZE et al, 2008, Does a low sodium diet improve asthma control? A randomized controlled trial PubMed
- Mickleborough TD, 2010, Salt intake, asthma, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a review PubMed
- Pogson Z et al, 2011, Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma PubMed
- Stamler J, 1997, The INTERSALT Study: background, methods, findings, and implications The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
What is sodium (natrium)?
The chemical symbol for sodium is Na.
Sodium Functions in the Body
Some important functions of sodium in the human body:
1. Sodium, along with chloride and potassium, helps to maintain electrical charge across the cell membranes in the nerve tissue and thus enables proper functioning of the nerves, muscles and heart .
2. Sodium enhances the absorption of chloride, glucose, amino acids and water from the small intestine into the blood, and the absorption of glucose and amino acids from the blood into the cells . The sodium content of beverages probably does not significantly affect water absorption [3,4].
3. Sodium promotes water retention in your body. An increase of the dietary sodium intake from 2 to 5 grams per day can increase the amount of water in your body by about 1 liter [2: Figure 2-2].
4. Sodium is involved in the regulation of blood volume and pressure. A drop of blood volume or pressure–for example, due to massive bleeding or dehydration–triggers the release of the adrenal hormone aldosterone, which stimulates sodium and thus water retention in the kidneys, which helps to maintain the blood volume and pressure. An increase of blood volume or pressure–for example, due to water drinking or salt intake–decreases the aldosterone release, which results in increased sodium and water excretion in the kidneys .
What is the recommended daily sodium and salt intake?
American Heart Association recommends less than 1.5 gram of sodium (3.8 g of salt) to everyone, unless prescribed otherwise by a doctor .
The estimated minimal requirement of sodium for adult Americans in a wide range of physical activities and climates is about 200 mg of sodium (500 mg of salt) per day . Patients with heart and kidney diseases, diabetes, hormonal disorders or high or low blood pressure should ask their doctors about the optimal sodium intake.
Sodium Absorption and the Regulation of the Normal Blood Sodium Concentration
In general, the more sodium you ingest, the more of it is absorbed from the small and large intestine. The blood serum sodium concentration is normally maintained at a certain level between 136 and 145 mmol sodium per liter. When you consume less sodium than you need, the blood sodium concentration falls slightly, which triggers the release of the adrenal hormone aldosterone, which reduces the sodium excretion in the kidneys. When you ingest more sodium than you need, the blood sodium concentration raises slightly, which inhibits the release of aldosterone, which results in an increased sodium excretion in the kidneys.
Sodium absorption may be increased in chronic pancreatitis with steatorrhea. Sodium and hence water absorption, often decreased in chronic alcoholics, may result in diarrhea .
Foods High in Sodium
The main source of the dietary sodium is salt (sodium chloride or NaCl), and to a smaller extent baking soda (NaHCO3) and food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium diphosphate (in baking powder), sodium alginate and other substances with “sodium” or “Na” in their names.
- Beverages relatively high in sodium: certain sport and energy drinks and mineral waters, coconut water, tomato juice .
- Medications high in sodium include sodium bicarbonate (an antacid), sodium phosphate (a laxative), naproxen sodium (an analgesic), diclofenac sodium, cromolyn sodium, sodium nitropruside and others. The sodium content 5 mg or larger per a drug dose should be mentioned in the drug information leaflet.
- Human breast milk contains about 170 mg sodium/liter . The Adequate Intake (AI) for sodium for 0-6 months old infants is 120 mg/day and for 7-12 months old infants is 370 mg/day .
Picture 1. Examples of foods high in sodium
Chart 1. Foods High in Sodium
|SALT, BAKING SODA and POWDER||Sodium (mg)|
|Table salt – NaCl (1 tsp, 6 g)||2,300|
|Baking soda – NaHCO3 (1 tsp, 4 g)||1,200|
|Baking powder – sodium aluminium sulfate (1 tsp, 4 g)||500|
|Table salt – NaCl (1 g)||400|
|Fish, dried, salted (3 oz, 85 g)||1,700-6,000|
|Soup, dry mix with water (1 cup, 237 mL)||3,300-3,800|
|Shrimps, breaded (7 pieces, 165 g)||1,500|
|Fish sauce (1 tbsp, 18 g)||1,400|
|Ham, pork (3 oz, 85 g)||1,100|
|Beef, corned (3 oz, 85 g)||1,000|
|Burrito with beef and cheese (150 g)||1,000|
|Pizza (1 serving, 150 g)||800-1,000|
|Beef stew, canned (1 cup, 237 mL)||900|
|Cheeseburger, double patty (160 g)||900|
|Crabs (3 oz, 85 g)||200-900|
|Cheese: American or Swiss w disodium phosphate (2 oz, 57 g)||800|
|Frankfurter, chicken (1 frank)||600|
|Salami (beef or pork) (2 oz, 57 g)||600|
|Cheese: edam, gouda, feta (2 oz, 57 g)||400-600|
|Gravy (3 oz, 85 g)||500|
|Cottage cheese (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||500|
|Bacon (1 oz, 28 g)||500|
|Sardines, canned (3 oz, 85 g)||400|
|Pudding, chocolate (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||400|
|Oysters (3 oz, 85 g)||400|
|Shrimps (3 oz, 85 g)||190|
|Egg (1 whole, 50 g)||150|
|Milk (1 cup, 237 mL)||145|
|Eggplant, pickled (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||1,100|
|Pretzels (2.1 oz, 60 g)||1,000|
|Soy sauce (1 tbsp, 18 g)||1,000|
|Miso (1 oz, 28 g)||1,000|
|Cucumbers, pickled (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||900|
|Tofu (1 oz, 28 g)||800|
|Tomato juice, canned, salt added (1 cup, 237 mL)||700|
|Beans, baked, canned (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||500|
|Potato chips, salted (2 oz, 57 g)||400|
|Olives, canned (1 oz, 28 g)||400|
|Salad dressing (1 oz, 28 g)||200-400|
|Mineral water (1 cup, 237 mL)||0-400|
|Cereals, ready-to-eat, prepared (1 cup, 237 mL)||100-300|
|Bagel (4″ dia)||300|
|Catsup [ketchup] (1 oz, 28 g)||300|
|Tomato sauce, canned (2 oz, 57 g)||300|
|French fries (117 g)||300|
|Cake, chocolate (1 piece, 100 g)||300|
|Pie, cherry (1 piece, 120 g)||300|
|Sport drinks (1 cup, 237 mL)||110-275|
|Coconut water (1 cup, 237 mL)||250|
|Energy drinks (8.3 fl oz, 247 mL)||200|
|Peanuts, salted (1 oz, 28 g)||200|
|Crackers, salted (1 oz, 28 g)||200|
|Popcorn, salted (2 cups, 475 mL)||200|
|Mushrooms, canned (8 caps, 47 g)||200|
|Yeast extract spread (1 tsp, 6 g)||200|
|Bread, white or rye (1 slice, 30 g)||200|
|Beet greens, cooked (1/2 cup)||150|
|Beets, cooked (1/2 cup)||150|
Chart 1 source: USDA.gov 
Sodium in Sport Drinks And Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS)
Sodium is used in sport drinks and oral rehydration solutions in order to:
- Improve their taste and therefore to encourage drinking
- Promote water retention in the body
- Prevent a drop of blood sodium levels (dilutional hyponatremia or water intoxication) when large amounts of fluid are needed.
Sport drinks that contain 460-1,150 mg of sodium/liter (110-275 mg/8 fl. oz) are effective in preventing hyponatremia during hard exercise lasting more than 2 hours, such as marathon or triathlon, according to European Food Information Council  and the Peak Performance website . NOTE: Many commercial sport drinks do not contain enough sodium to prevent hyponatremia .
Oral rehydration solution (ORS) by WHO/UNICEF contains 410 mg of sodium per cup (8 fl. oz, 237 mL) . Commercial oral rehydration solutions with similar or somewhat lower sodium contents are available in stores. ORS is mainly used to treat dehydration in infants and small children up to 4 years of age with diarrhea.
Dangers of Acute High Sodium (Salt) Intake
A large amount of sodium taken at once may trigger nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps or diarrhea . The absorption of large amounts of sodium, for example, after using highly concentrated salt solution to induce vomiting as a first aid measure in poisoning, may result in hypernatremia, which may be fatal .
Dangers of Chronic High Sodium (Salt) Intake
High Blood Pressure
According to the INTERSALT epidemiological study (1984-97), which included 10,079 adults 20-59 years of age from 32 countries, the estimated effect of a sodium intake higher by 2.3 g/day was higher blood pressure by 3-6/0-3 (upper/lower) mm Hg .
Salt Sensitivity and Blood Pressure
Salt sensitivity means an increase of the systolic (upper) blood pressure by 10 or more mm Hg upon acute intake of salt. About 50% of the U.S. population may be salt sensitive . Salt sensitivity tends to increase with age and body weight and decrease with potassium intake and physical activity [22,28]. Salt-sensitivity can be also influenced by genetics and race; Afro-Americans tend to be more salt-sensitive than American whites . Individuals with diabetes, high blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases tend to be more salt-sensitive .
Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke
According to several systematic reviews, there is CONFLICTING EVIDENCE about the effect of high salt intake on cardiovascular disease [1,20,24,41].
Epidemiological and prospective studies in eastern Asia suggest that long-term intake of salted, smoked and pickled foods, which are high in sodium, is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer, especially in individuals with chronic inflammation of the stomach (atrophic gastritis) caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori [1,37,38,40].
It is not known if high sodium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis [1,33].
In general, low-sodium diet means consuming less than 2 g of sodium (5 g salt) per day.
A low sodium diet is intended to reduce water retention and swelling in congestive heart failure, kidney failure, liver cirrhosis and certain hormonal disorders, such as Cushing syndrome (in adrenal or pituitary gland tumor) or hyperaldosteronism. It is also often advised to individuals with high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus.
Tips for low-sodium diet:
- Do not add salt at table.
- Avoid processed, cured, smoked and canned meats and fish, canned vegetables, pre-prepared soup mixes, snacks (salted chips or peanuts), fast foods, cheeses, sport and energy drinks and mineral waters and products containing more than 100 mg of sodium per serving, or containing monosodium glutamate (MSG), sodium alginate, nitrate, diphosphate or other substances with “sodium”, “soda” (baking soda or sodium bicarbonate) or “Na” in their names.
- Check if antacids, supplements or drugs you use contain more than 100 mg of sodium and ask your doctor for alternatives.
- Before using salt substitutes containing potassium chloride, speak with your doctor, since potassium overdose can be life-threatening.
- Low-sodium diet does not likely lead to sodium deficiency.
Benefits of Low Sodium (Salt) Intake
A Decrease in Blood Pressure
Changing a diet from high-sodium (>2,000 mg/day) to low-sodium (<2,000 mg/day) reduces the systolic (upper) blood pressure in adults and children by about 3 mm Hg, in average , but it is not clear if this has any beneficial health effect . The effect of lowering dietary sodium on blood pressure does not seem to be dose-dependent .
In a DASH-sodium trial, an average systolic (upper) blood pressure in a low-salt intake group (2.9 or less g salt/day) was 6.7 mm Hg lower than in a high-salt intake group (8.9 or more g salt/day) .
Lower sodium intake has been associated with lower risk of stroke and fatal coronary heart disease in adults .
Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke
Authors of 2 systematic reviews from 2002 and 2014 have concluded that currently there is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE to claim that reduced salt intake is associated with less cardiovascular diseases and deaths [25,26]. According to another 2014 review, high sodium intake is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease only in individuals with hypertension .
There is SOME EVIDENCE that lowering salt intake may reduce the risk of gastric cancer .
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about the effect of low-sodium diet in prevention of kidney calcium stones [29,30,31].
There seems to be NO EVIDENCE that low sodium intake would improve symptoms of asthma over long periods of time [34,42,43,44].
Low-Sodium and Sodium-Free Foods
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined the criteria for sodium sodium-related claims on the food labels :
- “Low in sodium:” 140 mg of sodium or less per serving
- “Very low in sodium:” 35 mg of sodium or less per serving
- “Sodium-free:” less than 5 mg of sodium per serving
- “Reduced sodium:” contains at least 25% less sodium than the regular foods
- “Light in sodium:” contains at least 50% less sodium than the regular foods
- “No salt added” or “unsalted” for foods with no added sodium
Chart 2. Foods Low in Sodium
|FOODS LOW in SODIUM (35-140 mg/serving)||Sodium (mg)|
|Low-sodium salt (1 tsp, 6 g)||Check the product label.|
|Milk (1 cup, 237 mL)||100-140|
|Fish: bass, cod, herring, mackerel, salmon, trout; oysters (3 oz, 85 g)||40-140|
|Cereals, ready-to-eat, certain products (30 g dry > 1 cup, prepared)||0-140|
|Yogurt (6 oz, 170 mL)||100-130|
|Celery (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||70|
|Chicken, turkey (3 oz, 85 g)||65|
|Carrots (1/2 cup, 120 mL)||45|
|Sweet potatoes (1 potato, 155 g)||40|
|FOODS VERY LOW in SODIUM (35 mg or less/serving)|
|Lettuce, green leaf (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Avocado (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Beans: green, pinto, snap, white, yellow; chickpeas (1/2 cup, 120 mL)|
|Municipal (tap) or bottled water (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Grains: barley, bulgur, corn grits, couscous (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Vegetables: asparagus, broccoli, Brussel’s sprouts, cabbage, cantaloupe, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, kale, kohlrabi, mustard greens, okra, potatoes, rutabagas, squash (winter), tomatoes, turnip (1/2 cup, 120 mL)|
|Applesauce, canned (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|SODIUM-FREE FOODS (<5 mg/serving)|
|Potato chips, unsalted (2 oz, 57 g)|
|Honey (1 tbsp, 21 g)|
|Lettuce, romaine (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Vegetables: cucumber, eggplant, peppers, pumpkin, squash (summer) (1/2 cup, 120 mL)|
|Peanuts, pine nuts (1 oz, 28 g)|
|Legumes: beans (black, green, kidney, lima, mung, navy, snap), lentils, split peas, cowpeas (1/2 cup, 120 mL)|
|Butter, unsalted (1 tbsp, 14 g)|
|Onions (1 large slice, 38 g)|
|Cocoa powder (1 tbsp, 5g)|
|Dates, medjol (2 oz, 57 g)|
|Puffed rice (1 cup, 237 mL)|
|Blackberries, blueberries, raspberries (1/2 cup, 120 mL)|
|Fruits; apple, apricot, banana, berries, cherries, grapes, grapefruit, kiwifruit, mango, nectarine, orange, papaya, pear, peach, pineaple, plums, watermelon (150 g)|
|Nuts: almonds, filberts, hazelnuts, pecans, walnuts (1 oz, 28 g)|
|Oils: canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, sesame, sunflower (1 tbsp, 14 g)|
|Vinegar, cider (1 tbsp, 14 mL)|
Chart 2 source: USDA.gov 
Hyponatremia: Causes, Symptoms
Hyponatremia–blood sodium levels lower than 136 mmol/L–usually occurs due to water retention or excessive water intake and extremely rarely as a result of low sodium intake .
- Loss of sodium from the body:
- Persisting vomiting
- Severe diarrhea
- Prolonged sweating: a marathon runner can easily excrete more than one liter of sweat per hour (sweat contains 2.2-3.5 g salt/liter)
- Extensive burns
- Kidney or brain disorders with excessive urination (polyuria)
- Drugs: certain diuretics, morphine, tricyclic antidepressants
- Caffeine intoxication 
- Water retention caused by heart failure, kidney failure, liver cirrhosis, adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), pituitary tumor releasing large amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) due to brain damage, surgery, tumor, infection, multiple sclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer or abscess, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis or certain drugs (ecstasy or MDMA)
- Water intoxication due to a combination of drinking of excessive amounts–several liters in few hours–of water, tea, soda or beer and a low-sodium diet.
- Bowel cleansing with sodium phosphate or sodium sulfate/magnesium citrate before surgery or colonoscopy may, rarely, result in hyponatremia .
Symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, faintness, and, in severe cases, muscle cramps, seizures and death due to brain swelling (cerebral edema) .
Treatment of hyponatremia depends on the cause and may involve restriction of fluid intake, adjustment of diuretic therapy, hormonal therapy or intravenous saline infusion.
Hypernatremia: Causes, Symptoms
Hypernatremia–blood sodium levels higher than 145 mmol/L–is most commonly caused by insufficient water intake and only rarely due to excessive sodium intake.
- Insufficient water intake, for example, due to impaired sense of thirst in old people in nursing homes
- Excessive water loss due to prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, fever, severe burns, fast breathing, diuretics, untreated diabetes mellitus, or, rarely, a brain damage or pituitary disorder (tumor) resulting in insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or a kidney disorder with inability to retain water
- Reduced sodium excretion in certain kidney and adrenal gland disorders (hyperaldosteronism)
- Drinking large amounts of seawater
- Excessive intravenous infusion of saline or sodium bicarbonate
Symptoms of hypernatremia may include thirst, very low or very high urine excretion, dizziness, muscle twitches, body swelling, seizures, coma, or death (in more than 50%) [1,12]. Treatment of hypernatremia is with replacement of water and removing the cause.
Sodium Interactions With Other Nutrients
High sodium intake increases calcium excretion in the kidneys, but there is insufficient evidence of this effect on kidney calcium stones or osteoporosis .
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal