- Selenium National Institute of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements
- List of Foods high in selenium US Department of Agriculture
- Shankar P et al, 2010, Micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery (PubMed)
- Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, clinical presentation Emedicine
- Selenium Linus Pauling Institute
- Selenium WebMD
- Effects of excess selenium National Academic Press
What is selenium?
The chemical symbol for selenium is Se.
In the human body, selenium is incorporated into the amino acid selenocysteine, which is part of selenoproteins :
- Selenoproteins act as antioxidants, which may protect cells against free radicals
- Selenoproteins are required for conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone (T4) into its active form (T3).
Selenium Rich Foods
Selenium in foods is in the form of an amino acid selenomethionine. Selenium content of foods greatly depends on amount of selenium in soil.
- Plant foods high in selenium: nuts, rice, whole-wheat bread
- Animal foods high in selenium: fish, poultry, eggs
- Human breast milk contains 18 mcg selenium/liter . An Adequate Intake (AI) for selenium for 0-6 months old infants is 15 mcg/day and for 7-12 months old infants 20 mcg/day .
Chart 1. Foods High in Selenium
|PLANT FOODS||Selenium (mcg)|
|Brazil nuts (1 oz, 28 g)||537|
|Nuts, mixed (1 oz, 28 g)||120|
|Couscous (1 cup, 237 mL)||45|
|Spaghetti, whole wheat (1 cup, 237 mL)||35|
|Bagel (4″ dia)||27|
|Bread, whole-wheat (2 slices, 50 g)||25|
|Sunflower seed kernels (1 oz, 28 g)||22|
|Cereals: barley, cornmeal, oatmeal, rice (white/brown) (1 cup, 237 mL)||10-20|
|Walnuts, black, dried (1 oz, 28 g)||5|
|Organ meats: kidney, liver (3 oz, 85 g)||90-186|
|Tuna (yellowfin) (3 oz, 85 g)||90|
|Mollusks (3 oz, 85 g)||85|
|Most other fish and seafood (3 oz, 85 g)||30-60|
|Beef, lamb, pork (3 oz, 85 g)||Up to 40|
|Turkey, light meat (3 oz, 85 g)||27|
|Chicken breast, meat only (3 oz, 85 g)||17|
|Egg, whole (1 large, 50 g)||15|
Chart 2 source: USDA.gov  All listed foods are ready to eat.
Recommended Selenium Intake
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for selenium for adults is 55 micrograms/day .
Selenium Deficiency: Causes, Symptoms
Selenium deficiency is rare in the U.S., but is common in some areas of China and east Russia with low amount of selenium in soil. Selenium deficiency may result in a heart disorder (Keshan disease), arthritis (Kashin-Beck disease) or mental retardation (myxedemic endemic cretinism), mostly in children . In the U.S., selenium deficiency may occur (usually together with other nutrients deficiencies) in patients with impaired intestinal absorption due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) , Crohn’s disease or short bowel syndrome (SBS) after surgical bowel removal, gastric bypass (bariatric surgery for weight loss)  or acute severe illnesses, and may result in heart disorders, hypothyroidism and increased susceptibility for infections. Selenium deficiency might increase the risk for cancer, but this has not been firmly confirmed .
Diagnosis of selenium deficiency is made when blood selenium levels are low. The amount of selenium in the toenails reflects the selenium status in the previous year .
Treatment is by selenium supplements.
Oral selenium supplements without prescription include :
- Inorganic selenium in the form of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and sodium selenate (Na2SeO4)
- Organic selenium in the form of selenomethionine. Organic forms are better absorbed.
- Selenium-enriched yeast may contain both organic and organic selenium.
Selenium Health Benefits
Selenium supplements are EFFECTIVE in preventing and treatment of selenium deficiency, and POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE in treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) .
Selenium supplements are POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE or there is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about their effectiveness in prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis, bird flu, burns, cancer of any type, cataracts, chemotherapy side effects, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), diabetes mellitus, gray hair, hay fever, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, infertility, macular degeneration (eye disease), miscarriage, mood disorders, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or swelling after surgery .
Selenium Safety: Side Effects, Toxicity
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for selenium–the amount that should not cause side effects–for adults, is 90 micrograms/day for small children, and 400 micrograms (mcg)/day for adults .
Acute Selenium Toxicity
Ingestion of one oz of Brazil nuts, which can contain more than 500 micrograms of selenium, could already have a toxic effect. Brazil nuts, sapucaia nuts, or coco de mone nuts (all grown in South America) or selenium supplements taken in excessive amounts may cause :
- within few hours: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, metallic taste, garlic odor, facial flushing, lightheadedness, muscle tenderness, tremor
- within few weeks: hair loss, horizontal streaks on nails.
Chronic Selenium Toxicity
Regular selenium intake at doses as low as 850 micrograms/day may result in selenosis (blood selenium level >100 µg/dL) with white blotchy nails, hair loss, rash, stomach upset, garlic breath odor, fatigue, and tingling due to a mild nerve damage .
Selenium may increase the risk of bleeding during surgery, so stop taking selenium supplements at least two weeks before scheduled surgery. Selenium may also cause blood clotting problems and liver and kidney problems. There is some concern that long-term high selenium intake might increase the risk of diabetes 2, skin cancer and prostate cancer . Selenium, taken without iodine, may worsen the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Selenium may reduce sperm motility, so men who try to father a child should not take selenium .
An anticonvulsant drug valproic acid lowers the blood selenium levels . Zinc supplements may decrease selenium absorption . Taking selenium with blood thinners, such as aspirin, clopidogrel, dalteparin, heparin, ticlopidine or warfarin, may increase the risk of bleeding or bruising . Selenium may increase the effect of barbiturates .
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
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