Absorption means the movement of a nutrient from the intestine into the blood.

Adequate Intake (AI)

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)

Anabolism refers to the buildup of new substances in the body from nutrients.

Anion is a negatively charged electrolyte. The main anions in the human body are carbonate, chloride and phosphate.

Antinutrients are substances found in foods that inhibit nutrient absorption.

Arteriosclerosis refers to atherosclerosis, that is hardening and narrowing, of the arteries.

Atheroma is a plaque on the inside walls of the blood vessels, mainly the arteries; it is composed mainly of lipids (fats, cholesterol), calcium-phosphate crystals, sodium and inflammatory cells.

Atherosclerosis means the buildup of an atheroma (plaque) on the inner walls of the blood vessels, mainly arteries, which results in hardening and narrowing (sclerosis) of the vessels.


Bromelain is an enzyme extracted from pineapple; it can digest proteins.

Caffeine is a drug that naturally occurs in coffee and tea and is added to certain soft and energy drinks.

Calorie is a measure of energy nutrients provide to the body.

Catabolism refers to the breakdown of nutrients or other substances in the body into smaller substances or energy.

Cation is a positively charged electrolyte. The main cations in the human body are sodium, potassium calcium and magnesium.

Coenzyme Q10 is an enzyme involved in the production of energy in the human body.

Coronary arteries are two small, but vital, arteries that arise from the aorta and run around the heart muscle supply it with the blood and therefore oxygen.

Coronary heart disease refers to hardening and narrowing (atherosclerosis) of the coronary arteries. Advanced coronary heart disease can result in heart failure or heart attack.

Daily Value (DV)

Dietary supplement

Electrolyte is an element or molecule that dissociates into charged particles in a solution and thus makes it capable of conducting electricity. The main nutrients that act as electrolytes in the human body are sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphate, carbonate, calcium and magnesium.

Essential nutrient (definition and list)

Food (definition and food groups)

Interventional study

Malabsorption is impaired absorption

Maldigestion is impaired digestion.

Metabolism refers to the whole range of biochemical reactions nutrients undergo in the body and which result in the buildup of new substances or the breakdown of nutrients into energy.

Net carbs are carbs that are absorbed and affect your blood glucose levels and are calculated as total carbs minus fiber minus polyols.

Meta analysis



Observational study

Panganic acid is a commercially sold dietary supplement without known benefits.

Papain is an enzyme extracted from papaya; it can help digest proteins.

Phytonutrients or phytochemicals are nutrients found exclusively in plants


Randomized controlled trial (RCT)

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Refeeding syndrome

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)

Systematic review

Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL)

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