- Bromelain WebMD
- Pineapple Drugs.com
- Bromelain National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
- Guo R et al, 2006, Herbal medicines for the treatment of rhinosinusitis: a systematic review PubMed
- Karkos PD et al, 2007, ‘Complementary ENT’: a systematic review of commonly used supplements PubMed
- Ameye LG et al, 2006, Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence PubMed
- Brien S et al, 2004, Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies PubMed Central
What is bromelain?
Bromelain is a group of enzymes that can digest proteins; it naturally occurs in pineapple meat, juice and steam .
Bromelain as a Meat Tenderizer
Bromelain in the powdered form is commercially available and used as a meat tenderizer.
Bromelain as a supplement is extracted from the pineapple stem.
Bromelain Health Benefits
Bromelain is POSSIBLY EFFECTIVE in shortening the duration of symptoms in acute sinusitis [2,3,4].
Bromelain is POSSIBLY INEFFECTIVE in preventing muscle soreness after exercise .
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE [1,2,3] about the effectiveness of bromelain supplements in the prevention or treatment of bronchitis, cancer, hay fever, kidney infection (pyelonephritis), leaky gut syndrome, osteoarthritis [3,6,7], swelling after surgery, multiple sclerosis or ulcerative colitis, or in improving the absorption of antibiotics or inducing labor.
Bromelain Safety: Toxicity, Side Effects
Bromelain is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth [1,2].
Side effects may include stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash .
Individuals allergic to pineapple, wheat, celery, papain, carrot, fennel, cypress pollen, or grass pollen, may be also allergic to bromelain .
Bromelain increases the risk of bleeding, so you should stop taking bromelain two weeks before scheduled surgery .
Bromelain supplements may increase the effects and side effects of certain antibiotics (amoxiciline, demeclocycline, minocycline, tetracycline).
Bromelain supplements may increase the risk of bruising or bleeding if taken together with anticoagulant drugs, such as aspirin, clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, indomethacin, ticlopidine or warfarin, or herbs, such as alfalfa, angelica, aniseed, arnica, asafoetida, bladderwrack, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, horse chestnut, licorice, meadowsweet, poplar, prickly ash, quassia, red clover, or willow [1,2].
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal