- Guar gum Drugs.com
- Guar gum NutritionData; and data from the producers
- Guar gum Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
- Wanders AJ et al, 2011, Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials PubMed
- Pittler MH et al, 2004, Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Romano C et al, 2013, Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in pediatric functional abdominal pain PubMed Central
- Slavin J, 2013, Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits PubMed Central
- Parisi GC, 2002, High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a multicenter, randomized, open trial comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) PubMed
- Gurung V et al, 2013, Interventions for treating cholestasis in pregnancy Cochrane Summaries
- Lalor BC et al, 1990, Placebo-controlled trial of the effects of guar gum and metformin on fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in obese, type 2 diabetic patients PubMed
- Toumilehto J et al, 1988, Long term treatment of severe hypercholesterolaemia with guar gum PubMed
- Aro A et al, 1984, Effects of guar gum in male subjects with hypercholesterolemia The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Vuorinen-Makola H et al, 1992, Guar gum in insulin-dependent diabetes: effects on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Mclvor ME et al, 1986, Long-term effects of guar gum on blood lipids PubMed
- Superko HR et al, 1988, Effects of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia PubMed
- Chuang LM et al, 1002, Therapeutic effect of guar gum in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus PubMed
- Gatti E et al, 1984, Effects of Guar-enriched pasta in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia PubMed
- Groop PH et al, 1993, Long term effects of guar gum in subjects with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
- Cicero AF et al, 2007, Different effect of psyllium and guar dietary supplementation on blood pressure control in hypertensive overweight patients: a six-month, randomized clinical trial PubMed
- Alam NH et al, 2000, Partially hydrolyzed guar gum-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children PubMed
- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE [21CFR184.1339] US Food and Drug Administration
- Alam N et al, 2005, Partially hydrolysed guar gum supplemented comminuted chicken diet in persistent diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial PubMed Central
- Yoon SJ et al, 2007, Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber PubMed Central
- Üstündag G et al, 2010, Can partially hydrolyzed guar gum be an alternative to lactulose in treatment of childhood constipation? PubMed
- Guar gum uses WebMD
- Guar gum side effects WEbMD
- Titgemeyer EC et al, 1991, Fermentabilty of various fiber sources by human fecal bacteria in vitro The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
What is guar gum?
Guar gum or guaran is a soluble fiber extracted from Indian cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) . It is an indigestible carbohydrate, a polysaccharide with high molecular weight made of galactose and mannose (a galactomannan). Guar gum is a highly soluble and highly viscous fiber . In the human large intestine, it is fermented by intestinal bacteria to gases and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can be absorbed and can provide 3-3.5 Calories per gram [2,27].
Guar Gum as a Food Additive
Guar gum is used as a spice or thickener in salad dressings, ice creams, frozen meats and other foods. It is also used as a binding agent in tablets.
Guar Gum Supplements: Possible Benefits
Guar gum tablets and capsules are available over-the-counter (OTC).
Guar gum added to carbohydrate meals reduced fasting blood glucose levels for about 10 mmol/L  and glucose and insulin spikes after meals in healthy persons and diabetics type 2 [1,16,17,18].
There is INSUFFICIENT EVIDENCE about guar gum supplements in treating cholestasis in pregnancy  and high blood pressure [1,9]. In clinical trials lasting from 6 to 50 weeks, in individuals with increased blood cholesterol levels, guar gum (15-30 g/day) has lowered the total and LDL cholesterol for up to 20% (but did not affect triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) [1,7,10,11,12,13,18]. In some studies, the beneficial effect have persisted only for few months [12,14,15].
Several clinical trials have shown NO EFFECT of guar gum on weight loss [1,4,5].
Safety: Toxicity, Side Effects
Guar gum is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , and has an “ADI not specified” (the highest safety category) by JECFA .
Ingestion of large amounts of guar gum may cause abdominal bloating, pain or cramps, excessive gas (flatulence), loose stools, diarrhea, or esophageal or small bowel obstruction . Guar gum may reduce the absorption of a glucose-lowering drug metformin and glyburide and antibiotic penicillin V .
Pregnancy. Not enough studies have been done to evaluate the safety of guar gum supplements during pregnancy and breastfeeding .
Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG)
Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) is a natural guar gum with low viscosity, produced from guar gum . PHGG may be used as an added fiber in ready-to-eat cereals, biscuits, breads, ice creams, yogurts, beverages and other foods and in fiber supplements.
- Partially hydrolyzed guar gum may be help relieve abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [7,8].
- In one clinical trial in children 8-16 years old, PHGG helped to relieve functional abdominal pain (no known cause) .
- In some human trials, PHGG has reduced LDL cholesterol levels.
- PHGG added to the rehydration solution, in children with acute diarrhea  and in chronic diarrhea .
- PHGG may help relieve constipation in children .
PHGG side effects may include mild abdominal bloating, flatulence, nausea or diarrhea. No toxicity of PHGG has been found .
Frequently Asked Questions
1. Is guar gum gluten-free?
2. What is the difference between guar and xanthan gum?
Guar gum is a natural gum extracted from cluster bean, while xanthan gum is an artificial gum.
- Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH)
- Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)
- Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)
- Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO)
- Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO)
- Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS)
- Raffinose, stachyose, verbascose
- SOLUBLE FIBER:
- Acacia (arabic) gum
- Beta mannan
- Carageenan gum
- Carob or locust bean gum
- Fenugreek gum
- Gellan gum
- Glucomannan or konjac gum
- Guar gum
- Karaya gum
- Psyllium husk mucilage
- Resistant starches
- Tara gum
- Tragacanth gum
- Xanthan gum
- INSOLUBLE FIBER:
- Chitin and chitosan
- Aspartic acid
- Glutamic acid
- FATTY ACIDS
- Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
- Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
- Arachidonic acid (AA)
- Linoleic acid
- Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
- Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)
- Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs)
- Long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs)
- Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
- Vitamin A - Retinol and retinal
- Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
- Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin
- Vitamin B5 - Pantothenic acid
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
- Vitamin B7 - Biotin
- Vitamin B9 - Folic acid
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
- Vitamin D - Ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol
- Vitamin E - Tocopherol
- Vitamin K - Phylloquinone
- Flavanols: Proanthocyanidins
- Flavanones: Hesperidin
- Flavonols: Quercetin
- Flavones: Diosmin, Luteolin
- Isoflavones: daidzein, genistein
- Caffeic acid
- Chlorogenic acid
- Tannic acid
- Alcohol chemical and physical properties
- Alcoholic beverages types (beer, wine, spirits)
- Denatured alcohol
- Alcohol absorption, metabolism, elimination
- Alcohol and body temperature
- Alcohol and the skin
- Alcohol, appetite and digestion
- Neurological effects of alcohol
- Alcohol, hormones and neurotransmitters
- Alcohol and pain
- Alcohol, blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
- Women, pregnancy, children and alcohol
- Alcohol tolerance
- Alcohol, blood glucose and diabetes
- Alcohol intolerance, allergy and headache
- Alcohol and psychological disorders
- Alcohol and vitamin, mineral and protein deficiency
- Alcohol-drug interactions
- Moderate, heavy, binge drinking
- Alcohol intoxication
- Alcohol poisoning
- Alcohol and gastrointestinal tract
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Long-term effects of excessive alcohol drinking
- Alcohol craving and alcoholism
- Alcohol withdrawal
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