Home / Articles / Gastric Emptying

Gastric Emptying

Normal Stomach Emptying

The rate of normal gastric emptying ranges from 1 to 4.5 Calories per minute [1,2,3,4]. Nutrients (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) that empty from the stomach into the duodenum trigger negative feedback via the vagus nerve, which delays gastric emptying and thus adjusts the amount of food that can be released from the stomach to the absorptive capacity of the small intestine [5].

The upper part of the stomach (fundus) has a main role in emptying of solids and the lower one (antrum) in emptying of liquids [6].

Factors that STIMULATE Gastric Emptying

1. Food Factors

  • The volume of either solid or liquid foods [40,41,42].
  • Small particle size of solid foods [85,86].

2. Body Factors

  • Moderate exercise, like walking [43,44] or moderate cycling [45]
  • Hypoglycemia [48,49]
  • Functional dyspepsia [51,52,53]
  • Duodenal ulcer [54,55]
  • Alcoholic neuropathy [56]
  • Certain gastric (stomach) operations, such as partial surgical removal of the stomach (gastrectomy) [57] or vagotomy [58], or gastric bypass (bariatric surgery) [59] or gastrin-secreting pancreatic tumor causing multiple gastric ulcers (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) [60]
  • Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system [62]
  • Cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults [63,64]

3. Drugs

Drugs that stimulate gastric emptying: azithromycin, beta blockers [10], bethanecol, cisapride, clarithromycin, diazepam, domperidone, erythromycin, metoclopramide, naloxone (used to stimulate gastric emptying in critically ill individuals treated with opioids) [11,69], prostaglandine E2 [11], pyridostigmine (used in treatment of diabetic gastroparesis) [11,66].

H2 antagonists ranitidine, famotidine and nizatidine may or may not stimulate gastric emptying [70,71,72,73,74,167].

Stopping smoking can be associated with faster gastric emptying and thus with decreased satiety [47].

Symptoms of Rapid Gastric Emptying (Dumping Syndrome)

Early symptoms (10-30 minutes after meals) include bloating, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and explosive diarrhea [60].

Late symptoms (1-3 hours after meals), which result from reactive hypoglycemia, include flushing, pale, clammy skin, dizziness upon standing (orthostatic hypotension), headache, impaired consciousness, increased heart rate, palpitations, hunger, tremor, fatigue and sleepiness [57,60,61,75].

Diet in Rapid Gastric Emptying

To avoid: easily digesting carbohydrates (sugars, baked goods from white bread, potatoes, white rice), milk and other dairy products; also avoid liquids within 30 minutes after meals [57,145].

To add into the diet: dietary fiber that slows gastric emptying: pectin, guar gum, glucomannan [76,96,145].

Factors That SLOW Gastric Emptying

1. Food Factors

  • Calorie content [81,82] and caloric density (calories per gram) of a meal [87,88].
    • Fatty foods, such as chocolate [83], delay gastric emptying, probably due to their high calorie content [84]; solid fats delay emptying more than liquid fats (oils, milk) [41]. A drug orlistat, which inhibits the enzyme lipase and thus slows the digestion of fats to fatty acids, increases gastric emptying rate in healthy individuals by about 50% [90] and increases blood glucose levels after liquid oil-glucose meals by 35% [91]. Long-chain fatty acids with 12 or more C atoms delay gastric emptying but short- and medium-chain fatty acids with less than 10 C atoms do not [92,93].
  • Viscosity of the food. Non-viscous fluids are emptied fastest, followed by viscous fluids, pureed foods, solid foods and finally, poorly chewed solid foods [16,41,94,95]. Certain viscous soluble fiber, such as guar gum (in doses >5 g) [76,96], pectin (in doses >10 g) [76], agar and glucomannan [100,101] can delay gastric emptying.
  • Alcohol. Beer and red wine can delay gastric emptying of solid foods [103] and a Japanese aperitif umeshu (14% abv) can delay emptying of liquids [104].
  • Calcium supplements slow gastric emptying [106].

2. Physiological Factors

  • Factors that stimulate sympathetic nerves, such as anxiety, fear, stress and pain [107,108]
  • Physical exercise above 70% intensity or in a hot environment (120 °F or 49° C) [109,110,111,112]
  • Pregnancy, probably due to high progesterone levels [16,17,107]

3. Health Conditions

ACUTE health conditions:

  • Fever [113]
  • Severe trauma [94] or burns [114]
  • Hyperglycemia in some, but not all, diabetics [115,116]
  • Brain tumor or trauma associated with elevated intracranial pressure [97]
  • Abdominal surgery can be followed by a temporary paralysis of the bowel (ileus) [119,120]. Resection of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) may temporarily reduce gastric emptying rate [16,121,122]. Anxiousness before surgery and immobilization after surgery may result in severely prolonged gastric emptying (>10 hours) [123].
  • Radiation therapy [105]

CHRONIC health conditions:

  • Diabetes type 1 and 2 [124]; NOTE: Some individuals with diabetes type 1 or 2 may have rapid gastric emptying due to dysfunction of the vagus nerve (autonomic neuropathy) or other causes [50]. Chronic hyperglycemia [16,48,125] and to a much lesser extent autonomic neuropathy [124,126] are associated with slow gastric emptying in individuals with poorly controlled diabetes. The severity of symptoms (nausea, bloating) does not necessary correlate with the extent of the gastric emptying delay [124,127]. The rate of gastric emptying does not change much in a course of diabetes in a certain individual [128].
  • Surgery: gastric surgery, gastric bypass, pancreatic resection [129], gallbladder removal, lung or heart transplantation [10,16,130].
  • Idiopathic gastroparesis is delayed gastric emptying without a known cause [16,65]. Individuals officially diagnosed with functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [16,131] or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) [132] can actually have delayed gastric emptying. Emptying of liquids is rarely delayed even in severe gastroparesis [133].
  • Depression [16,112]
  • Anorexia nervosa [144]
  • Gastric and duodenal disorders: duodenal adhesions, amyloidosis, atrophic gastritis with or without pernicious anemia or achlorhydria [134], bezoar, cancer, caustic injury, gastric reflux – GERD [135,136], peptic ulcer [54,137], polymyositis, polyps, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [16,138,139]
  • Cancers: gastric, duodenal, pancreatic [16,139,140], paraneoplastic syndrome associated with small-cell lung carcinoma [16]
  • Celiac disease [142,143], Crohn’s disease [16]
  • Congenital disorders: cystic fibrosis [16], myotonic muscular dystrophy [16], hypertrophic pyloric stenosis [68], Turner’s syndrome [16]
  • Hormonal disorders: adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism [16]
  • Liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis [16,146]
  • Neurological disorders: brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, brain stem stroke, neuropathy (damage of the vagus nerve) [148], autonomic dysfunction [62]
  • Physical or sexual abuse in women [130,149]
  • Post-infectious gastroparesis, a common cause of “functional dyspepsia,” after infection with citomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (infectious mononucleosis), Herpes zoster (Varicella zoster), Rotavirus (stomach flu), Salmonella or Giardia (food poisoning), Borellia (Lyme disease), HIV/AIDS, Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), or after vaccination may last from several weeks to more than a year [13,16,117,118,150].
  • Chronic renal insufficiency [16]
  • Spinal cord injury (tetraplegics) [105]

4. Medications

  • Analgesics: acetaminophen
  • Anesthetics
  • Anti-asthmatics: adrenaline or epinephrine, dobutamine, salbutamol
  • Anti-cancer drugs: chemotherapy, interferon alpha
  • Anticholinergics: atropine, bentyl, levsin, oxybutinin
  • Antidepressants: tricyclic antideprtessants (amitriptyline, doxepin), SSRIs (fluoxetine, paxil)
  • Anti-diabetics: exenatide, liraglutide
  • Antiemetic ondansetron
  • Anti-epileptics: carbamazepine
  • Antihistamines: loratadine, diphenhydramine
  • Anti-malarics: chloroquine
  • Anti-parkinsonian drugs: L-dopa
  • Antipsihotics: lithium
  • Gastric acid-lowering drugs: antacids (aluminum hydroxide), H2 inhibitors (ranitidine), protein pump inhibitors (omeprazole), sucralfate (in individuals with duodenal ulcer) [55]
  • Hormones: calcitonin, glucagon, octreoide, oxytocin, progesterone
  • Intravenous nutrition
  • Marijuana, nicotine
  • Opioids: codeine, fentanyl, methadone, morphine, tramadol
  • Potassium supplements
  • Sedatives
  • Vaccination for tetanus, hepatitis
  • YGD (Yerba Mate leaves, Guarana seeds, Damiana leaves)
  • References: [4,16,77,108,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158]

Symptoms of Slow Gastric Emptying

Symptoms of delay gastric emptying occur soon after eating and can include early satiety, heartburn, frequent burping, acid reflux, nausea, abdominal pain after eating, constipation, diarrhea, unintentional weight loss [16,152,179,148,180], depression and anxiety [181]. Intensity of symptoms is not necessary related with the extent of gastric delay [182].

Complications of slow gastric emptying may include hypoglycemia in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes [13] and malnutrition caused by irregular eating due to poor appetite [148,183].

Measures to Improve Digestion in Delayed Gastric Emptying

  • Have smaller and more frequent meals, choose liquid rather than solid meals.
  • Avoid solid fats (oils may be well tolerated), soluble fiber (beans, oats, barley, dried fruits), large amounts of alcohol
  • Chew the food well.
  • Avoid smoking and unnecessary stress.
  • References: [10,16,150]

Medications to treat slow gastric emptying:

  • Erythromycin [10,174,175,184]; tolerance can develop with time
  • Metoclopramide [10,159,166,174,176,183] may not be very effective in reducing symptoms; it also has several side effects; it is intended for a short-term treatment [10].
  • Mitemcinal [27]
  • Domperidone has fewer side effects than metoclopramide [174,175,176,192] but is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), though [183].
  • Bethanechol [10]
  • Mirtazapine and tricyclic antidepressants (in refractory cases) [10,176]
  • Botulinus toxin injections [10]
  • Gastric electric stimulation [10,182]
  • Gastrostomy, jejunostomy or gastric resection [10]
  • Botulinus toxin injected to pylorus (in diabetic gastroparesis) [141,182]
  • Azithromycin [133,141]

Drugs to relieve nausea in delayed gastric emptying:

  • Phenothiazines: prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, and promethazine [10]
  • Ondansetron and benzodiazepines can help relieve nausea in individuals on chemotherapy [10]
  • Antihistamines: diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate and meclizine [10]

What May Not Affect Gastric Emptying


  • Carbonated beverages probably do not significantly affect gastric emptying, but this can vary greatly among individuals [38,160,161].
  • The type of a macronutrient (carbohydrates, proteins or fats) [81,88]
  • Water (up to 1 liter) taken with solid meals does not significantly accelerate stomach emptying [162].
  • Alcohol digestifs (40% abv) may stimulate gastric emptying, but this may vary greatly among individuals [163].
  • Espresso coffee [163]
  • Ginger [164,165]
  • Vinegar [168,169,170]
  • Chewing gum [171]


  • The body position [51]
  • Age [89,107]
  • Obesity [177,178]

Emptying of LIQUIDS

The faster the emptying of liquids from the stomach, the faster their absorption in the small intestine. A certain individual empties liquids of the same type, calorie content, amount and temperature at about the same rate [30].

What stimulates the gastric emptying of liquids: the volume of the liquid [31,32].

What slows gastric emptying of liquids:

  • Solid foods [33]
  • Carbohydrate content as low as 2.5%, but usually only when higher than 7%, and especially when higher than 10%, can slow gastric emptying of liquids [34,35,78,79].
  • Glucose added to water slows gastric emptying more than galactose and this more than fructose [78].
  • Liquids that are much colder than the body temperature (98.6 °F or 37 °C) can slow stomach emptying [102].
  • Exercise at intensities greater than 60% can slow gastric emptying of water and carbohydrate solutions [80]. In trained marathon runners, running had no effect on the gastric emptying of solid meals [46].
  • Fiber added to liquid meals slows their emptying from the stomach [98].

Half-emptying time of 500 mL of different beverages in 2 studies [36,37]:

  • Water: 15-30 minutes
  • Fructose solution (10%): 60 minutes
  • Glucose solution (10%): 65-90 minutes
  • Beer (4% abv): 40 minutes
  • Red wine (10% abv): 75 minutes
  • 125 mL of whiskey (40 vol% alcohol) followed by 125 mL water: 25 minutes

Emptying of SOLIDS

Solid foods can empty from the stomach in 3-6 hours [39,172,173]. Solids empty from the stomach when they are ground to less than 2 mm size particles [4,39].

Gastrointestinal Hormones that Regulate Gastric Emptying

Gastrointestinal hormones that stimulate gastric emptying: amylin (a pancreatic hormone), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) [7], ghrelin [8,9], motilin [8] and its synthetic analog mitemcinal [27].

Gastrointestinal hormones that (may) slow gastric emptying: amylin (a hormone secreted from the pancreas) [22] and its synthetic analog pramlintide [23] cholecystokinin (CKK) [8,13,14], glucagon [10,11], glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) [4,8,20,21], leptin [25], pancreatic polypeptide [28], peptide YY (PYY) [8], secretin [29] and somatostatin [18,19].

Other hormones that may slow gastric emptying: calcitonin [10,11], dopamine [12,15], enkephalins (endogenous opioids) [24], melatonin (in pharmacological doses) [26], octreoide [10] and progesterone [16,17].

  1. Brener W et al, 1983, Regulation of the gastric emptying of glucose PubMed
  2. Varón AR et al, 2010, From the physiology of gastric emptying to the understanding of gastroparesis SciELO
  3. Little TJ et al, The release of GLP-1 and ghrelin, but not GIP and CCK, by glucose is dependent upon the length of small intestine exposed American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism
  4. Marathe CS et al, 2011, Effects of GLP-1 and Incretin-Based Therapies on Gastrointestinal Motor Function PubMed Central
  5. Young RL et al, 2011, Sensing via Intestinal Sweet Taste Pathways PubMed Central
  6. Collins PJ et al, 1991, Role of the proximal and distal stomach in mixed solid and liquid meal emptying Gut
  7. Horowitz M et al, 1993, Relationship between oral glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in normal healthy subjects PubMed
  8. Khoo J et al, 2010, Gastrointestinal hormonal dysfunction in gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia Wiley Online Library
  9. Murray CDR et al, 2005, Ghrelin enhances gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis: a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study PubMed
  10. Parkman HP et al, 2004, American Gastroenterological Association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis Gastroenterology
  11. Ouyang C, 1996, The Clinical Significance of gastric dysrhythmias Baishideng Publishing Group
  12. Tarling MM et al, 1997, A model of gastric emptying using paracetamol absorption in intensive care patients Springer Link
  13. Parkman HP et al, 2011, Gastroparesis and Functional Dyspepsia: Excerpts from the AGA/ANMS Meeting PubMed Central
  14. Fried M et al, 1991, Role of cholecystokinin in the regulation of gastric emptying and pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans. Studies with the cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist loxiglumide PubMed
  15. Levein NG et al, 1999, Dopamine delays gastric emptying and prolongs orocaecal transit time in volunteers PubMed
  16. Kristinsson JO et al, 2007, Gastroparesis in patients with inactive Crohn’s disease: a case series BioMed Central
  18. Somatostatin Colorado State University
  19. Jonderko G et al, 1989, Effect of somatostatin-14 on gastric emptying and on gastrin and insulin release after ingestion of a mixed solid-liquid meal in man PubMed
  20. Abu-Hamdah R et al, 2009, The Extrapancreatic Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 and Related Peptides PubMed Central
  21. Salehi M et al, 2008, Regulation of Islet Hormone Release and Gastric Emptying by Endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 after Glucose Ingestion Endocrine Society
  22. Schmitz O et al, 1999, Aspects of secretion and actions of amylin: interplay between amylin and other hormones PubMed
  23. Samson M et al, 2000, Pramlintide, an amylin analog, selectively delays gastric emptying: potential role of vagal inhibition American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism
  24. Ebert R, 1988, Control of gastric emptying by regulatory peptides PubMed
  25. Yarandi SS, 2011, Diverse roles of leptin in the gastrointestinal tract: modulation of motility, absorption, growth, and inflammation PubMed
  26. Thor PJ et al, 2007, MELATONIN AND SEROTONIN EFFECTS ON GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
  27. McCallum RW et al, 2007, Clinical trial: effect of mitemcinal (a motilin agonist) on gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis – a randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled study Wiley Online Library
  28. Schmidt PT et al, 2013, A Role for Pancreatic Polypeptide in the Regulation of Gastric Emptying and Short-Term Metabolic Control Endocrine Society
  29. KLeibeuker JH et al, 1988, Retardation of gastric emptying of solid food by secretin PubMed
  31. Endocrine Regulation of Glucose Metabolism Rose-Hulman
  32. Byars A et al, 2010, The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance PubMed Central
  33. Horowitz M et al, 1989, Relationships between gastric emptying of solid and caloric liquid meals and alcohol absorption PubMed
  34. Murray R et al, 1999, A comparison of the gastric emptying characteristics of selected sports drinks PubMed
  35. Vist GE, 1994, Gastric emptying of ingested solutions in man: effect of beverage glucose concentration PubMed
  36. Guss JL et al, 1994, American Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
  37. Franke A et al, 2004, Effect of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric emptying in humans PubMed
  38. Zachwieja JJ et al, 1992, The effects of a carbonated carbohydrate drink on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal distress, and exercise performance PubMed
  39. Holt S et al, 1982, Gastric emptying of solids in man Gut
  40. Wong CA et al, 2002, Gastric emptying of water in term pregnancy PubMed
  41. Sadiya A, 2012, Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review PubMed Central
  42. Kwiatek MA et al, 2009, Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
  43. Moore JG et al, 1990, Exercise increases solid meal gastric emptying rates in men PubMed
  44. Neufer PD et al, 1989, Gastric emptying during walking and running: effects of varied exercise intensity PubMed
  45. Cammack J et al, 1982, Effect of prolonged exercise on the passage of a solid meal through the stomach and small intestine PubMed Central
  46. Carrió I et al, 1989, Gastric emptying in marathon runners Gut
  47. Kadota K et al, 2010, Effects of smoking cessation on gastric emptying in smokers PubMed
  48. Schvarcz E et al, 1997, Physiological hyperglycemia slows gastric emptying in normal subjects and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus PubMed
  49. Russo A et al, 2005, Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia Accelerates Gastric Emptying of Solids and Liquids in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes Endocrine Society
  50. Camilleri M et al, 2010, Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Management of Diabetic Gastroparesis PubMed
  52. Lunding JA et al, 2006, Rapid initial gastric emptying and hypersensitivity to gastric filling in functional dyspepsia: effects of duodenal lipids PubMed
  53. Kusano M et al, 2011, Rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, might provoke functional dyspepsia PubMed
  54. Harasawa S et al, 1979, Gastric emptying in normal subjects and patients with peptic ulcer: a study using the acetaminophen method PubMed
  55. Peterson JM et al, 1989, Sucralfate delays gastric emptying of liquids and solids in duodenal ulcer patientsPubMed
  56. RosaE-Silva L et al, 2007, Factors associated with abnormal gastric emptying in alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis PubMed
  57. Dumping syndrome Aboutgutmotility.org
  58. Behrns KE et al, 1994, Diagnosis and management of gastric emptying disorders PubeMed
  59. Wang G et al, 2012, Accelerated gastric emptying but no carbohydrate malabsorption 1 year after gastric bypass surgery (GBP) PubMed
  60. Dumping syndrome National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
  61. Kanth R, Dumping syndrome Emedicine
  62. Lawal A et al, 2007, Rapid gastric emptying is more common than gastroparesis in patients with autonomic dysfunction PubMed
  63. Hejazi RA et al, 2010, Spectrum of gastric emptying patterns in adult patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome
  64. Hejazi RA et al, 2011, Review article: cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults – rediscovering and redefining an old entity Wiley Online Library
  65. Middleton SJ et al, 2012, Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series PubMed Central
  66. Alam U et al, 2010, Diabetic gastroparesis therapeutic options PubMed Central
  67. Sachdeva P et al, 2011, Gastric emptying of solids and liquids for evaluation for gastroparesis  PubMed
  68. Gurvits GE et al, 2013, Video capsule endoscopy and CT enterography in diagnosing adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  PubMed Central
  69. Meissner W et al, 2011, Enteral naloxone reduces gastric tube reflux and frequency of pneumonia in critical care patients during opioid analgesia PubMed
  70. Cucchiara S et al, 1996, Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying time in patients with cystic fibrosis and effect of ranitidine on delayed gastric emptying PubMed
  71. Ohita Y et al, 1993, Effects of various histamine H2-receptor antagonists on gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying PubMed
  72. Takahashi Y et al, 2006, Influence of acid suppressants on gastric emptying: cross-over analysis in healthy volunteers PubMed
  73. Parikh R, 1994, Ranitidine bismuth citrate and ranitidine do not affect PubMed Central
  74. Parkman HP et al, 1998, Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility PubMed Central
  75. Tack J et al, 2009, Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of postoperative dumping syndrome  Europe PubMed Central
  76. Papathanasopoulos A et al, 2010, Dietary Fiber Supplements: Effects in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome and Relationship to Gastrointestinal Functions  PubMed Central
  77. 2004, American Gastroenterological Association Technical Review on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroparesis  Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania
  78. Foster C, 1993, Gastric emptying during exercise: Influence of carbohydrate concentration, carbohydrate source and exercise intensity  National Academic Press
  79. Foster C, 1993, Gastric emptying during exercise: Influence of carbohydrate concentration, carbohydrate source and exercise intensity  National Academic Press
  80. Foster C, 1993, Gastric emptying during exercise: Influence of carbohydrate concentration, carbohydrate source and exercise intensity  National Academic Press
  81. Maughan RJ et al, 2003, Gastric emptying and fluid availability after ingestion of glucose and soy protein hydrolysate solutions in man  Wiley Online Library
  82. Urbain JL et al, 1989, Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids
  83. Mackie A et al, 2012, High fat food increases gastric residence and thus thresholds for objective symptoms in allergic patients  PubMed
  84. Gentilcore D et al, 2013, Effects of Fat on Gastric Emptying of and the Glycemic, Insulin, and Incretin Responses to a Carbohydrate Meal in Type 2 Diabetes  Endocrine Society
  85. Olausson EA et al, 2013, Small particle size of a solid meal increases gastric emptying and late postprandial glycaemic response in diabetic subjects with gastroparesis  DrugLib
  86. Holt S et al, 1982, Gastric emptying of solids in man  PubMed Central
  87. Collins PJ et al, 1983, Gastric emptying in normal subjects a reproducible technique using a single scintillation camera and computer system  PubMed Central
  89. Bonner JJ et al, Does age affect gastric emptying time? A model-based meta-analysis of data from premature neonates through to adults  PubMed
  90. Borovicka J et al, 2000, Role of lipase in the regulation of postprandial gastric acid secretion and emptying of fat in humans: a study with orlistat, a highly specific lipase inhibitor  Gut
  91. Pilichiewicz A et al, 2003, Effect of Lipase Inhibition on Gastric Emptying of, and the Glycemic and Incretin Responses to, an Oil/Aqueous Drink in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  Endocrine Society
  92. Hunt J et al, 1968, relation between the chain length of fatty acids and the slowing of gastric emptying  Wiley Online Library
  93. McLaughlin J et al, Fatty acid chain length determines cholecystokinin secretion and effect on human gastric motility PubMed
  94. Sakamoto Y et al, 2011, Mosapride Accelerates the Delayed Gastric Emptying of High-Viscosity Liquids: A Crossover Study Using Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)  PubMed Central
  95. Marciani L et al, 2001, Effect of meal viscosity and nutrients on satiety, intragastric dilution, and emptying assessed by MRI  American Journal of Physiology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
  96. Guar gum  Drugs.com
  97. Lucena AF et al, 2011, Influence of acute brain injuries on gut motility  PubMed
  98. Benini L et al, 2003, Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food  PubMed Central
  99. Patterson D et al, 1999, A double-blind multicenter comparison of domperidone and metoclopramide in the treatment of diabetic patients with symptoms of gastroparesis  PubMed
  100. Glucomannan  Drugs.com
  101. Juvonen KR et al, Viscosity of Oat Bran-Enriched Beverages Influences Gastrointestinal Hormonal Responses in Healthy Humans  The Journal of Nutrition
  102. Collares EF et al, 1981, Gastric emptying in children. I. Influence of the temperature of a hydration solution for oral use  PubMed
  104. Inamori M et al, 2009, Aperitif effects on gastric emptying: a crossover study using continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID System)  PubMed
  105. Hasler WL, 2012, Gastroparesis  Medscape
  106. Shafer RB et al, 1985, Do calories, osmolality, or calcium determine gastric emptying?  American Journal of Physiology, Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
  107. Cheng C, 2006, Gastric emptying  The Chinese University of Hong Kong
  108. Jolliffe DM, 2009, Practical gastric physiology Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical care & Pain
  109. Leiper JB et al, 2005, The effect of intermittent high-intensity running on gastric emptying of fluids in man  PubMed
  110. Ryan AJ et al, 1998, Effect of hypohydration on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during exercise  Journal of Applied Physiology
  111. Nieuwenhoven MA et al, 2000, Effect of dehydration on gastrointestinal function at rest and during exercise in humans  PubMed
  112. Neufer PD et al, 1989, Gastric emptying during exercise: effects of heat stress and hypohydration   PubMed
  113. Islas Andrade S et al, 1989, Effect of fever on gastric emptying and on serum gastrin levels  PubMed
  114. Sallam HS et al, 2011, Gastric emptying and intestinal transit of various enteral feedings following severe burn injury  PubMed
  115. Kashyap P et al, 2010, Diabetic Gastroparesis: what we have learned and had to unlearn in the past 5 years  PubMed Central
  116. Woerle HJ et al, 2008, Impaired Hyperglycemia-Induced Delay in Gastric Emptying in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Deficient for Islet Amyloid Polypeptide  PubMed Central
  117. Troncon LE et al, 1993, Abnormal progression of a liquid meal through the stomach and small intestine in patients with Chagas’ disease  PubMed
  118. Kebede D et al, 1987, Transient gastroparesis associated with cutaneous herpes zoster  PubMed
  119. Cagir B, Ileus clinical presentation  Emedicine
  120. Walsh RM et al, 2009, Current therapies to shorten postoperative ileus  Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
  121. Kapoor KP, Vagotomy  Emedicine
  122. Malagelada JR et al, 1980, Gastric motor abnormalities in diabetic and postvagotomy gastroparesis: effect of metoclopramide and bethanechol  PubMed
  123. Pfab F et al, 2011, Acupuncture in Critically Ill Patients Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying: A Randomized Controlled Trial  PubMed Central
  124. Kojecky J et al, 2008, Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients  PubMed Central
  125. Gonlachanvit S et al, 2003, Ginger Reduces Hyperglycemia-Evoked Gastric Dysrhythmias in Healthy Humans: Possible Role of Endogenous Prostaglandins  The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
  126. Rayner CK et al, 2006, Gastrointestinal motility and glycemic control in diabetes: the chicken and the egg revisited?  PubMed Central
  127. Lacigová S et al, 2000, Gastric emptying in diabetics  PubMed
  128. Chang J et al, 2012, A 25-Year Longitudinal Evaluation of Gastric Emptying in Diabetes  Diabetes Care
  129. Aranha GV et al, 2003, Zero mortality after 152 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies with pancreaticogastrostomy  PubMed
  130. Soykan I et al, 1998, Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long-term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis  PubMed
  131. Caballero-Plasencia AM et al, Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, 1999, PubMed
  132. Burnet RB et al, 2004, Gastric emptying is slow in chronic fatigue syndrome  PubMed Central
  133. Waseem S et al, 2009, Gastroparesis: Current diagnostic challenges and management considerations  PubMed Central
  134. Tosetti C et al, 2000, Gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in patients with nonautoimmune fundic atrophic gastritis  PubMed
  135. Bais JE et al, 2001, Impact of Delayed Gastric Emptying on the Outcome of Antireflux Surgery  PubMed Central
  136. McCallum RW et al, 1981, Gastric emptying in patients with gastroesophageal reflux  PubMed
  137. Engler-Pinto P et al, 1995, Gastric emptying of 99mTc tagged solid food in gastric and duodenal ulceration  PubMed
  138. Kurosaki I et al, 2005, Clinical and surgical factors influencing delayed gastric emptying after pyloric-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy  PubMed
  139. Gastroparesis  IFFGD
  140. Barkin JS et al, 1986, Pancreatic carcinoma is associated with delayed gastric emptying  PubMed
  141. Arts J et al, 2006, Influence of intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection on gastric emptying and meal-related symptoms in gastroparesis patients  PubMed
  142. Marciani L et al, 2005, Gallbladder contraction, gastric emptying and antral motility: single visit assessment of upper GI function in untreated celiac disease using echo-planar MRI  PubMed
  143. Perri F et al, 2000, Gastric emptying of solids is delayed in celiac disease and normalizes after gluten withdrawal  PubMed
  144. Rigaud D et al, 1988, Delayed gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa is improved by completion of a renutrition program  PubMed
  145. Kanth R Dumping syndrome treatment and management  Emedicine
  146. Schoonjars R et al, 2002, Gastric emptying of solids in cirrhotic and peritoneal dialysis patients: influence of peritoneal volume load  PubMed
  147. Larson JM et al, 2010, Advantages of Azithromycin Over Erythromycin in Improving the Gastric Emptying Half-Time in Adult Patients With Gastroparesis  PubMed
  148. Gastroparesis  National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
  149. Masaoka T et al, 2009, Gastroparesis: Current Concepts and Management  PubMed Central
  150. Parkman HP et al, 2010, Gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia: excerpts from the AGA/ANMS meeting  American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society
  151. Medications that Delay Gastric Emptying  Family Practice Notebook
  152. Miller G et al, 1989, Smoking delays gastric emptying of solids  Gut
  153. Gritz ER et al, 1988, The effect of nicotine on the delay of gastric emptying  Wiley Online Library
  154. Borg J et al, 2012, Oxytocin prolongs the gastric emptying time in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but does not affect satiety or volume intake in patients with functional dyspepsia  PubMed Central
  155. Sanaka M et al, 2010, Effects of proton pump inhibitors on gastric emptying: a systematic review  PubMed
  156. Adams BK et al, 2004, Prolonged gastric emptying half-time and gastric hypomotility after drug overdose  PubMed
  157. Jaup BH et al, 1981, The effect of pirenzepine and L-hyoscyamine on gastric emptying and salivary secretion in healthy volunteers  PubMed
  158. Linnebjerg H et al, Effect of exenatide on gastric emptying and relationship to postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes  Europe PubMed Central
  159. Ramsbottom N et al, 1970, Studies of the effect of metoclopramide and apomorphine on gastric emptying and secretion in man  PubMed
  160. Cuomo R et al, 2011, The role of a pre-load beverage on gastric volume and food intake: comparison between non-caloric carbonated and non-carbonated beverage  PubMed Central
  161. Pouderoux P et al, 1997, Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution  PubMed
  162. Kroop HS et al, 1979, Effect of water and fat on gastric emptying of solid meals  PubMed
  163. Franke A et al, 2008, Postprandial Walking but not Consumption of Alcoholic Digestifs or Espresso Accelerates Gastric Emptying in Healthy Volunteers  Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
  164. Wu KL et al, 2008, Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans  PubMed
  165. Hu ML et al, 2011, Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia  PubMed Central
  166. McCallum RW et al, 1983, A multicenter placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral metoclopramide in diabetic gastroparesis  PubMed
  167. Madsen JL et al, 2008, Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans  PubMed
  168. Salbe AD et al, 2009, Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects  PubMed
  169. Brighenti F et al, 1995, Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate responses to a mixed meal in healthy subjects  PubMed
  170. Coon JT, 2002, Herbal medicinal products for non-ulcer dyspepsia  Wiley Online Library
  171. Sakamoto Y et al, 2011, Change of Gastric Emptying With Chewing Gum: Evaluation Using a Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System), PubMed Central
  172. Attila P et al, 2005, Feasibility and safety of endoscopic evaluation of gastric emptying  PubMed
  173. Bolvig L et al, 1990, Final gastric emptying of solid food in healthy subjects: determined by X-ray examination and radionuclide imaging  PubMed
  174. Abrahamsson H et al, 2007, Treatment options for patients with severe gastroparesis  PubMed Central
  175. Sturm A et al, 1999, Prokinetics in patients with gastroparesis: a systematic analysis  PubMed Central
  176. Keld R et al, 2011, Pathogenesis, investigation and dietary and medical management of gastroparesis  Wiley Online Library
  177. Buchholz V et al, 2013, Gastric emptying is not prolonged in obese patients  PubMed
  178. Verdich C et al, 2000, Effect of obesity and major weight reduction on gastric emptying  International Journal of Obesity
  179. Gastroparesis  American Diabetes Association
  180. Jones KL et al, 2001, Predictors of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Diabetes  Diabetes Care
  181. Bielefeldt K et al, 2009, Different faces of gastroparesis  PubMed Central
  182. Lacy BE et al, 2004, The treatment of diabetic gastroparesis with botulinum toxin injection of the pylorus  PubMed
  183. Abell TL et al, 2006, Nutrition aspects of gastroparesis and therapies for drug-refractory patients  PubMed
  184. Janssens J et al, 1990, Improvement of Gastric Emptying in Diabetic Gastroparesis by Erythromycin — Preliminary Studies  The New England Journal of Medicine

7 Responses to "Gastric Emptying"

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *